Anthropological research was published by Georg Fritz in his ground breaking 'The Chamorro' , but little else appeared [cf 984, 986]. Apart from Fritz' work, material culture was not addressed at all, the only publication being an extract of Safford's work on Guam . Physical anthropology dealt with crania and other skeletal remains collected on Saipan [cf 975, 978, 979, 980] and the question of the racial origin of the Chamorro [cf 976].
Anthropology in General
|Anon. 1886. "Alfred Marche." [Alfred Marche]. Petermanns Mitteilungen 50, p. 191.|
Very brief note stating that Alfred Marche had been commissioned by the French Ministry of Education to carry out geographical, anthropological, ethnographic and natural history research in the Marianas.
|Anon. 1887. "Alfred Marche." [Alfred Marche]. Petermanns Mitteilungen 51, p. 191.|
Note stating that Alfred Marche commenced his voyage on 19 December 1886.
|Bastian, Adolf. 1899. Die micronesischen Colonien aus ethnologischen Gesichtspunkten. [The Micronesian colonies seen from an ethnographic viewpoint]. Berlin: A. Asher & Co.|
Brief discussion of the societal structure of the various Micronesian communities. The information on the Marianas (pp. 22-27) was compiled from published references at the time, drawing heavily on Le Gobien.
|Fritz, Georg. 1904. "Die Chamorro: Eine Geschichte und Ethnographie der Marianen." [The Chamorro. A history and ethnography of the Marianas]. Ethnologisches Notizblatt 3, no. 3, pp. 25-110.|
This work provides information on traditional customs Fritz observed on Saipan during the early part of the 20th century. It provides information regarding the crafting and use of many household implements and hand tools such as the batea (washboard). Fritz writes about almost every subject in Chamorro culture from chewing pugua (betelnut) to weddings to chenchule (which Fritz spells phonetically tchintchule). The history section is brief but the discussions of social activities and customs are more informative.
|Haas, Salesius. 1906. "Die Karolinen-Insel Yap. " [The Caroline Island Yap]. Zeitschrift für Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft 8.|
Ethnographic and geographical description of Yap. A section deals with the Chamorro community on Yap.
|Haas, Salesius. 1912. Die Karolinen-Insel Yap. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis von Land und Leuten in unseren deutschen Südsee-Kolonien. [The Caroline island of Yap. A contribution to the knowledge about the land and people of our German colonies in the South Seas]. Berlin: Wilhelm Süsserott.|
|Anon. 1906. "Physische Anthropologie der Marianenbewohner." [On the physical anthropology of the inhabitants of the Marianas]. Globus 89, p. 244.|
Brief note on human skeletal material collected by Georg Fritz and sent to the Museum of Ethnography in Berlin. In total 45 skulls and skull fragments were collected and subsequently described by Otto Schlaginhaufen. The skulls showed substantial variation.
|Finsch, Otto. 1882. "Zur Rassenfrage in Oceanien." [On the race question in Oceania]. Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Verhandlungen pp. 163-166.|
Review article on the state of knowledge on physical anthropology in Micronesia. Provides an overview of the knowledge and assumptions at the time regarding the orgin of the Micronesians and their 'racial affiliation.' .
|Hager, Carl. 1888. "Die Rassenfrage der insularen Völker, besonders der Mikronesier. Eine übersicht der neueren Hypothesen." [The race question of the insular peoples, especially of the Micronesians. An overview of recent hypotheses]. Das Ausland 59, no. 26, pp. 501-506.|
Review paper on the state of the physical anthropological debate on the colonisation of Micronesia. Labels the Carolineans and Marshallese pelagic Mongols.
|Krause, R. 1886. "über micronesische Schädel." [On Micronesian skulls]. Korrespondenzblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie 17, pp. 122-128.|
Review article on the state of knowledge on physical anthropology in Micronesia based on 105 crania, 16 of which stem from the Marshalls. Provides measurement averages and comments on geographical trends.
|Schlaginhaufen, Otto. 1905. "über eine Schädelserie von den Marianen." [On a series of skulls from the Marianas]. Jahrbuch der St. Gallischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft p. 454-508.|
Analysis of human skeletal material collected by Georg Fritz in a limestone cave near Tanapag (Calaberas Cave) and sent to the Museum of Ethnography in Berlin. In total 45 skulls and skull fragments were described. The skulls showed substantial variation in the cranial indices calculated. The author argues that the skull series is too small a sample to draw reliable conclusions.
|Virchow, Rudolf. 1880. "Mikronesische und melanesische Schädel und Skelette." [Micronesian and Melanesian Skulls and Skeletons]. Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 12, pp. 111-112.|
Description of one cranium from Jaluit and one from Kiribati as well as five crania and two skeletons from New Britain. A letter by Dr. Carl Benda, reprinted in the paper, provides summary information on the context of the (illegal) excavation and cultural background of the Marshallese. Benda acquired two crania from Jaluit, excavated at a chiefly burial site on the tip of an island (Jabor?). The burials were in scrub and surrounded by coral boulders. The "excavation had to occur at night, because the natives watch with great care over the sacredness of the burials." The bodies were encountered at a depth of 0. 75m and did not follow a systematic orientation.
|Virchow, Rudolf. 1880. "Schädel- und Tibiaformen von Südseeinsulanern." [Cranial and tibia shapes of South Sea Islanders]. Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 12, pp. 112-119.|
Describes the Jaluit, Kiribati and New Britain crania provided by the German naval physician Dr. Benda and places them into the regional context. The rest of the paper deals with the tibiae from two New Britain burials.
|Virchow, Rudolf. 1881. "über mikronesische Schädel." [On Micronesian skulls]. Monatsberichte der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften pp. 1114-1143.|
Describes the anthropological material collected by Otto Finsch, such as plaster casts of faces, hands etc, as well as crania collected on Chuuk (purchased from Johan Kubary, who excavated them himself) and Kiribati, as well as isolated other acquisitions made by others. A detailed discussion of various cranial indices is given as are the measurements.
|Virchow, Rudolf. 1886. "über micronesische Schädel (Diskussions Beitrag)." [On Micronesian skulls (Discussion)]. Korrespondenzblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie 17, pp. 128-129.|
Comments on Krause's paper (no. 978). Deplores that the political events of 1885 (partition of Micronesia between Spain and Germany) meant that the supply of skulls would dry up and that the conduct of the racial debate would suffer from that.
|Dwucet, F. 1908. "Ein eigentümliches Volk in der Südsee." [A peculiar people in the South Seas]. In: Wiese, J (ed.), Neu-Deutschland. Unsere Kolonien in Wort und Bild. Berlin: Meidinger's Jugendschriften Verlag. Pp. 363-368.|
Description of the Chamorro life on Saipan. Provides limited data written for young people.
|Eckert, Georg. 1935. Der Einfluss des Geschlechts- und Familienlebens auf die Bevölkerungsbewegung mikronesischer Inseln. [The influence of sexual behaviour and family organisation on the demography of the Micronesian Islands]. Inaugural Dissertation Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität, Bonn. Berlin: Triltsch & Huther.|
The thesis looks at the demographic data available on the various island groups of Micronesia (Nauru, Pohnpei, Yap, and Palau) compiling information from German and published Japanese sources. Social customs regarding the permissible number of children, pre-marital sex and inter-island movements, the influences of European cultural change and the state of public health are also included.
|Lehmann, Gallus. 1910. "Bilder aus dem Missionsleben. Ein fideles Begräbnis auf Saipan." [Pictures from mission life. A happy burial on Saipan]. Aus den Missionen der rheinisch-westfälischen Kapuziner-Ordensprovinz auf den Karolinen, Marianen, und Palau-Inseln in der deutschen Südsee. Jahresbericht 1910. Oberginginen, Lothringen: Druck der Waisen-Lehrlinge. Pp. 30-32.|
Description of a burial ceremony on Saipan. Discusses the Chamorro attitude towards death and the burial processes. The author expresses amazement at the merry nature of the ceremony and the choice of songs played ('Muss I denn zum Städlein hinaus'). Contains a photograph.
|Lopinot, Callistus. 1910. "Bilder aus dem Missionsleben. Hahnenkampf auf Saipan." [Pictures from Missionary life. A cockfight on Saipan]. Aus den Missionen der rheinisch-westfälischen Kapuziner-Ordensprovinz auf den Karolinen, Marianen, und Palau-Inseln in der deutschen Südsee. Jahresbericht 1909.Oberginginen, Lothringen: Druck der Waisen-Lehrlinge. Pp. 33-35.|
Description of the now outlawed cockfights which were usually conducted on Sunday afternoons. The cockfights had been outlawed previously, but reinstated due to representations from the residents of Saipan. The new prohibition was effected by a higher authority, which makes a rescission unlikely. A description of the training and fights is given. Some of the fighting cocks were bred locally, and others were imported from Japan. Fighting cocks were continually exchanged between Guam and Saipan. Includes a photograph of a street scene of Garapan.
|Thilenius, Georg and Hambruch, Paul. 1920. "Marianen-Eingeborenenbevölkerung." [Marianas-Indigenous population]. In: Schnee, Heinrich (ed.), Deutsches Koloniallexikon. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer. Vol. II (H-O), pp. 503-507.|
Detailed encyclopedia entry on the demography, social and physical anthropology of the Marianas.
|Safford, William E. 1905. "Fischfang mit Hilfe von Gift durch die Bewohner der Marianen Insel Guam." [Fishing with the help of poisons by the inhabitants of the Marianas Island of Guam]. Globus 88, p. 148.|
German summary of a section of Safford's publication 'The Useful Plants of the Islands of Guam'.
Linguistics and Oral Traditions
|Anon. 1903. "Der Kampf um die deutsche Sprache und das Deutschtum in den deutschen Kolonien." [The struggle over the German language and spirit in the colonies]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 20, no. 45, pp. 455-456.|
Paper deploring the spread of Pidgin and the loss of German as a spoken language in many colonies, especially in New Guinea. The paper takes up a previous call for the active pursuit of German by the Governor of New Guinea, Albert Hahl.
|Anon. 1904. "Die deutsche Sprache in den deutschen Kolonien." [The German language in the German colonies]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 21, no. 16, p. 191.|
Item on the need to maintain German as the main language in the colonies. Mentions that the Steyler Mission has made it one of its aims to ensure that German is spoken in the communities it is working.
|Anon. 1905. "Sprachgebiet in Deutsch-Mikronesien und Polynesien." [Language regions in German Micronesia and Polynesia]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 22, no. 20, p. 198.|
Review item of Senfft's language map published in the Deutsches Kolonialblatt.
|B. 1904. "Die deutsche Sprache in den deutschen Kolonien." [The German language in the German colonies]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 21, no. 16, p. 157.|
Item on the need to maintain German as the main language in the colonies. Mentions that the Neuguinea Compagnie ordered its staff to restrict the use of Pidgin when conversing with workers and plantation hands.
|Costenoble, Hermann H. L. W. 1940. Die Chamorro Sprache. [The Chamorro language]. 's-Gravenhage: Matthias Nijhoff for Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie. vi, 543 pp.|
Dictionary and Grammar of the Chamorro language, based on life-long experience and research while resident on Saipan and particularly Guam.
|Fritz, Georg. 1903. "Chamorro-Grammatik." [Chamorro Grammar]. Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen 6, pp. 1-27.|
Chamorro Grammar published as one of the pieces of Chamorro research conducted by Fritz. Fritz had to rely on local informants and a few bilingual Spanish ordinances. The validity of the work is severely criticised by Hermann Costenoble Jr., but favourably received by Seidel.
|Fritz, Georg. 1904. Chamorro-Wörterbuch. In zwei Theilen: Deutsch-Chamorro und Chamorro-Deutsch. Auf der Insel Saipan, Marianen, gesammelt. [Chamorro Dictionary. In two parts: German-Chamorro and Chamorro-German. Collected on the island of Saipan, Marianas]. Archiv für das Studium deutscher Kolonialsprachen 2. Berlin: Georg Reimer. P. 124p.|
The first German-Chamorro dictionary, compiled by the German district administrator Georg Fritz.
|Fritz, Georg. 1905? übungsheft der Chamorro Sprache. [Exercise book for the Chamorro language]. Berlin?: Kolonialabteilung?.|
Item mimeographed and produced in Berlin for the use of the adult evening school classes taught by Fritz on Saipan [not seen, mentioned in Seidel, Sprachen].
|Fritz, Georg. 1906. "Der Chaifi. Ein Märchen von den Marianen." [The Chaifi. A fairy tale from the Marianas]. Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen Ostasiatische Studien 9, pp. 178-180.|
The German text of a tale from the Marianas, translated by Fritz for use as a German reader in the school on Saipan, but publicised widely.
|Fritz, Georg. 1906. "Der Chaifi. Ein Märchen von den Marianen." [The Chaifi. A fairy tale from the Marianas]. Der Ostasiatische Lloyd 20, no. 27, pp. 42-43.|
The German text of a tale from the Marianas, translated by Fritz for use as a German reader in the school on Saipan, but publicised widely.
|Fritz, Georg. 1913. Die Zentralkarolinische Sprache. Grammatik, übungen u. Wörterbuch der Mundart der westlich von Truk liegenden Atolle, insbesondere der Saipan-Karoliner. [The language of the central Carolines. Grammar, exercises and dictionary of the dialect of the atolls west of Chuuk, especially of the Carolinians living on Saipan]. Berlin: Georg Reimer. 134pp.|
An introduction discusses the geography and cultural conditions of the Central Carolines. The dictionary was compiled in Saipan, while Fritz was district administrator and revised when in district administrator in Yap, with the assistance of the overseer on Saipan Rebuenog, the assistant teacher at the Saipan Government school Rapaito and his long-term companion Romuloor. (The introduction is dated Alzey March 1911).
|Girschner, Max. 1906. "Sprachen und Sprachgebiete in Deutsch-Mikronesien." [Languages and language areas in German Micronesia]. Globus 89, p. 274.|
Brief item replying to Seidel's paper on the same topic. Stresses the problems inherent in learning languages sufficiently well to develop a dictionary and a grammar. Outlines his own personal problems with Pohnpeian. Girschner stresses the fact that English is not taught in German Micronesia and that teaching occurs in the native tongue, with German taught as a foreign language.
|Jacobi, E. 1904. "Die Verbreitung der deutschen Sprache in den Schutzgebieten." [The propagation of the German language in the protectorates]. Zeitschrift für Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft 6, pp. 41-46.|
Review of the state of German language education in the German colonies with an emphasis on Africa. Argues that the teaching of German was essential for successful colonisation. Compared to Africa and the other South Sea Colonies the developments in German Micronesia, particularly Fritz' activities of teaching German in evening classes in the Marianas are lauded as exemplary.
|Kindt, Ludwig. 1904. "Sollen die Eingeborenen und die fremden Arbeiter in unseren Kolonien die deutsche Sprache erlernen." [Should the indigenous peoples and the foreign workers in our colonies learn the German language?]. Zeitschrift für Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft 6, pp. 281-284.|
The paper argues that whites should speak German in German colonies, but that the indigenous population and foreign (non-white) workers should not be allowed to learn the language so as to maintain a power differential. The German population in the colonies, however, should learn the local language so that the local population could develop trust in its administration.
|Krämer, Augustin. 1913. "Redet Deutsch in unsern Kolonien!" [Speak German in our colonies!]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 30, no. 24, pp. 406-407.|
Paper arguing that German should be the lingua franca in all German colonies, and that Pidgin and English should be discouraged.
|Lopinot, Callistus. 1910. Chamorro-Wörterbuch enthaltend I. Deutsch-Chamorro, II. Chamorro-Deutsch nebst einer Chamorro Grammatik und einigen Sprachübungen. [Chamorro dictionary containing I. German-Chamorro, II. Chamorro-German, together with a Chamorro grammar and a few exercises]. HongKong: Typis Societatis Missionum ad Exteros [Kloster Nazareth]. iv, 172, 33 pp.|
Dictionary and grammar of the Chamorro language, compiled by the Catholic Capuchin missionary Pater Callistus Lopinot. The volume makes no reference to previous work by other authors.
|Schmidt, Wilhelm. 1912. "Buchbesprechung von P. Callistus, 'Chamorro-Wörterbuch', G. Fritz, 'Die Zentralkarolinische Sprache' und P. Salvator Walleser, 'Grammatik der Palau-Sprache." [Book review of P. Callistus, 'Chamorro-Wörterbuch', G. Fritz, 'Die Zentralkarolinische Sprache' and P. Salvator Walleser, 'Grammatik der Palau-Sprache]. Anthropos 7, pp. 1080-1083.|
Generally positive review of the three books.
|Schreiber. 1904. "Die Sprachenfrage in den deutschen Kolonien." [The question of languages in the German colonies]. Zeitschrift für Kolonialpolitik, Kolonialrecht und Kolonialwirtschaft 6, pp. 112-121.|
Reviews the diversity and reach of various indigenous languages in the German colonies, stressing that there is no lingua franca in most colonies. In the light of this any reluctance on the part of German administrators to learn local languages is seen as understandable. At the same time the author expresses concern at the sole reliance on translators, both because of the potential for unintentional misinterpretation and the opportunity for malfeasance. The author argues for German language education in schools as well as the obligation of German officials and planters to learn at least one local language.
|Seidel, Heinrich. 1904. "Chamorro-Grammatik (Rezensur)." [Chamorro Grammar (book review]. Globus 86, p. 351.|
Favourable book reviews of Georg Fritz' Chamorro Grammar and Fritz' Chamorro Dictionary.
|Seidel, Heinrich. 1905. "Sprachen und Sprachgebiete in Deutsch-Mikronesien." [Languages and language areas in German Micronesia]. Globus 88, no. 12, pp. 181-184.|
Reviews and discusses the knowledge on the language areas in German Micronesia and shows that Nukuoro, although politically, does not linguistically belong to Micronesia. The paper deals mainly with the Carolines and Palau, with limited commentary on the position of the Marshallese language. Mentions that the presence of a large Carolinian population on Saipan is often overlooked.
|Senfft, Arno. 1905. "Sprachgebiete in Deutsch-Mikronesien und Polynesien." [The linguistic areas of German Micronesia and Polynesia]. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 16, no. 10, p. 328.|
Brief item and map on the language areas in Micronesia, written by the German district administrator in Yap.
|Steyler Mission. 1904. "Die deutsche Sprache im Ausland." [The German language abroad]. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 21, no. 20, p. 191.|
Item abstracted from a letter by the Steyler Mission stating that they are very much concerned with the teaching of German in the colonies.
|Thalheimer, August. 1908. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pronomina personalia und possessiva der Sprachen Mikronesiens. [Contribution to the knowledge of the personal and possessive pronouns of the Micronesian languages]. Stuttgart: Metzler.|
PhD thesis discussing the nature and usage of personal and possessive pronouns in various Micronesian languages. The thesis arrives at a pattern of vowel shifts and provides a family tree of the various languages spoken in Pohnpei, Kosrae, Chuuk, Satawal, Woleai, Ulithi, Merir, Mortlock Is., Gilbert Is., Marianas and Yap.
|Werther, W. 1903. "Namensgebung und Schreibweise von Namen in den deutschen Kolonien." [Naming and spelling of names in the German colonies]. Koloniale Zeitschrift 4, pp. 361-362.|
Commentary on the regulation attempting to curb the tendency of local administrators to change geographic names. While it is lauded that the documentation and continued use of local names is to be pursued diligently, the limitations of the Latin alphabet with respect to glottal stops and the like is mentioned. The author criticises the regulations for not being totally practicable.
|Krämer, Augustin. 1905. "Das neue Kolonialalphabet in seiner Anwendung auf die Südsee." [The new colonial alphabet and its application to the South Seas]. Globus 87, no. 17, p. 294.|
Paper discussing the implications of the introduction of a series of principles on the nomenclature, translation, orthography and pronunciation of geographical names in the German Protectorates as decreed by the German Colonial Office. The implementation of these rules would lead to substantial name changes. Krämer makes acid comments on the implications this would have on the orthography of Micronesian, in particular Marshallese place names.
|Strauch, Franz. 1906. "Zur geographishen Nomenklatur unserer Südseeinseln." [On the geographic nomenclature of our South Seas colonies]. Verhandlungen des deutschen Kolinialkongresses zu Berlin am 5., 6. und 7. Oktober 1905. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). Pp. 107-114.|
Paper discussing the problems inherent in renaming (Germanising) geographical features in the German colonies in the South Seas. The author is critical of such moves.