[1]   Cunningham 1961; Devereux 1947. [back]

[2]    Heine and Anderson 1971. [back]

[3]   Spennemann 1992. [back]

[4]   The great circle route was pioneered by Arellano in the San Lucas and Urdaneta in the San Pedro, both vessels of Lagazpi's expedition of 1565 (Hezel 1983:29). [back]

[5]   Bryan 1959:2; Beaglehole 1966:54; Dierdorff 1943; Hager 1886:43; Hobbs 1945:75; Manchester 1951:65; Votaw 1941. [back]

[6]   Beaglehole 1966:54. In some sources October 2nd is also given as the date of sighting. [back]

[7]   Arrowsmith's Chart of the 1820s. [back]

[8]   Votaw 1941; Dierdorff 1943. [back]

[9]   According to other sources Samuel Wake or Lieutenant William Wake, (cf. Dierdorff 1943:500; Johnson 1935); but see name in Pierpoint 1797. [back]

[10]   Cf. Hobbs 1945:75. [back]

[11]   The Halcyon, under the command of Captain Charles William Bakeley, is listed in a ship list for Hawaii between 8 and 15 November 1792 (Judd 1974:5). [back]

[12]   Ward 1967: III 417-418. [back]

[13]   Pierpoint 1797.--A similar press notice with identical co-ordinates was carried in several other U.S. newspapers, namely the Massachusetts Mercury (Semi-Weekly; Boston 19 Sept, 1797), Independent Chronicle and Universal Advertiser (Boston, 11 Sept. 1797) and the Columbian Sentinel (Boston 13 Sept. 1797). [back]

[14]   Captain Otto v.Kotzebue Rurick 1817 (Kotzebue 1830:269).--Captain F.W.Beechy, HMS Blossom, March 1827.--Captain Brown, Morning Star.--Hezel (1979), the main source on Micronesian shipping, does not cover Wake Island. [back]

[15]   The Tanager Expedition of 1923 first named the individual islets of the atoll. While the main island was Wake, that to the southwest of it was called Wilkes, and that to the north east Peale, both chosen in honour of prominent members of the 1840 U.S.Exploring Expedition (Bryan 1959). Upon the capture of the atoll in December 1941 the Japanese called the atoll Ottori-Shima/Otori-jima (Ottori Jima - from verb ottoru = to snatch or seize in a hurry, jima = Island). Peale was renamed to Hani-Shima/Hani-jima and Wilkes to Ashi-shima/Aji-jima. In addition to Wake proper (Eneen-Kio), there are Wake's Rocks (reported by Delano [quoted after Dickson 1939] to be in 17deg.48'N 186deg.12'W [=173o48'E]), One source (Anonymous 1898c) mentions that Wake should not be confused with "Week's" Island off the western coast of Patagonia (South America). In addition, there is a Walkers Island, position 3deg.58'N 148deg.10'W, off the coast of South America. [back]

[6]   Amasa Delano, quoted after Dickson 1939. [back]

[17]   Sproule, barque Maria in 1858, quoted after Anonymous 1898c. [back]

[18]   Wilkes 1845:V 245. [back]

[19]   Aiman 1944:41; Bryan 1959:2; Votaw 1941:52; U.S.Congress 1835. [back]

[20]   A large number of whaler's logbooks has been made available on microfilm by the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau in Canberra. For the index see Langdon 1978; 1979. As can be seen from table 2, there were also several other whalers, the logbooks of which have not been filmed. In the 1850s some 50-60 whalers were operating these waters each year. It is probable that many of them landed on the atoll. [back]

[21]   Gardener 1824. [back]

[22]   Andrews 1830. [back]

[23]   Hathaway 1851. [back]

[24]   Devoll 1851. [back]

[25]   Riddell 1854. [back]

[6]   Swift1851. [back]

[27]   Veeder 1858. [back]

[28]   Andrews 1830. [back]

[29]   See Fosberg 1959b; Fosberg & Sachet 1969. [back]

[30]   Cf. Ridell 1854. [back]

[31]   Cf. Brigham (1900), Oracle 1865 "[Wake] was covered with a low and sparse vegetation" (quoted after Dickson 1939). [back]

[32]   Logbook of the whaler Foster (see above); whaler Rajah, Captain Bennet (U.S.Congress 1835). [back]

[33]   For the beche-la-mer trade see for example: Hezel 1983:83; 86; 179ff. [back]

[34]   Pickering 1858: 246-247; Peale 1848;Wilkes 1845:V 284-285. [back]

[35]   Wilkes 1858: map 94. [back]

[36]   Wilkes 1845: V 285. [back]

[37]   Lieutenant James Alden, 1842. [back]

[38]   Anonymous 1898d; Pratt 1964:76. [back]

[39]   See also Votaw 1941:52; Heinl 1947:65. [back]

[40]   An act to authorise protection to be given to citizens of the United States who may discover deposites of Guano [passed on August 18, 1856]. Chapter CLXIV of Public laws of the United States of America passed at the first session of the thirtyfourth Congress 1855-1856. Edited by G.Minot. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. Pp. 119-120. [back]

[41]   Anonymous 1898b. [back]

[42]   The list published by Moore (1906:I 567-577) is comprised of over 50 islands. It is possible that the confusion arose from a Walkers Island (position 3deg.58'N 148deg.10'W) which is included in the list, but which is located off the coast of South America (ibid. 577). w [back]