Marshall Islands History
Beachcombers, Traders & Castaways in the Marshall Islands
by Francis X. Hezel

Ever since foreign ships began visiting the islands, men came ashore to stay--some as deserters and beachcombers, some as castaways, some as traders. This is a list of those foreigners who came to the Marshall Islands to stay--at least for a while. Anderson   Jaluit   (1889-1890)

Anderson, a Scotchman, was the manager of Crawford Company's station on Jaluit in 1889-1890. He is described by a contemporary as "young, genial and popular."

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 367-369


Baker   Majuro   (c1915-1918)

Captain Baker, as he was known, was a trader on Majuro during German times. He was the last store-keeper before its close in 1918.

Sources:  Chave 1947: 48


Baiser   Majuro   (1875)

Baiser was a trader on Majuro in 1875 working for Bully Hayes, but he asked the captain of the Protestant vessel "Morning Star" to take him off the island later that same year.

Sources:  Colcord 1875: Journal on the Morning Star, 1875, p. 23


Louis Becke   Kosrae, Majuro   (1874, 1882)

Louis Becke, the author, may have been the supercargo on Bully Hayes' vessel "leonora" in the early 1870s. He spent several months on Kosrae when the "Leonora" was wrecked there. He is said to have traded on Majuro in 1882, but stayed there for only one year.

Sources:  Browning 1972: 37


Frank Benson   Mili, Arno   (1872-1883)

Frank Benson, an American, was landed at Mili in January 1872 to be the agent of Bully Hayes on that island. He next appears in the records as an agent for Hernshim on Arno between 1880 and 1883.

Sources:  Browning 1972: 35; Thurston 1885


R. A. Berry   Ebon   (1884)

Berry was a British subject of Irish descent. He lived on Ebon in 1884 as a trader for Henderson & MacFarlane. He left in December of that year to return to Ireland. He claimed that the people of Ebon stole $250 worth of his goods.

Sources:  Moore 1884


William Bonar   Ebon, Yap   (1877-1878)

Bonar evidently resided in New Zealand. He was a trader on Ebon in the Marshalls for a short time, January-March 1977. He then was taken to Yap where he was an agent for Thomas Farrell for a little longer than a year. He returned to Auckland aboard the "Vision" in October 1878.

Sources:  Young 1878: 13 Sept 1877; New Zealand Herald, 8 Oct 1878


George Brown (Basilio Terranova)   Arno   (1867-1881)

Basilio Terranova was an Italian who first came to the Marshalls from Hawaii in 1867. He was working on Ben Peace's ship "Blossom" . He was still living there in 1872, working for Bully Hayes and Charles Howard. In April 1876 he began trading for Hernsheim Co., but soon began working on the "Vision". Terranova and his brother was still trading on Arno in 1881 and working for Hernsheim Co.

Sources:  Young 1881: June 30, 1876; Pitman 1872: 23 May 1872; Moore 1872: 4; Restieaux 1869; Maxwell 1881


Henry Burlingham (Burlingame)   Majuro, Pingelap, Mili,   (1869-1876)

Henry Burlingham, was an American trader who resided on Pingelap sometime during the 1860s. When he moved to Majuro in 1869 to trade for Bully Hayes, he left his wife and child in Pingelap. Hayes later brought the child to Majuro charging the trader $50 for the favor. Burlingham is said to have talked people out of killing first Hawaiian missionary on Majuro who "amused himself by breaking in young girls." Burlingham was still on Majuro in December 1871, and remained there for at least another year or two as an agent for Bully Hayes. He helped Kaibuke against Jibberik, a paramount chief of Majuro. He moved to Mili some time before 1876, but in June 1876 he was back on Majuro, trading for Capelle.

Sources:  Restieaux 1869: 11-12; Young 1878; Pitman 1872; Dana 1935: 54-55; Browning 1972: 36


John Cameron   Mili, Jaluit, Pohnpei, Kiribati   (1888-1893)

John Cameron, a Scotchman, was shipwrecked at Midway for eight months in 1888. He and two others left the island in a small boat and made Mili on November 25 of that year. After a week or two there, he went to Jaluit on the vessel "Ehukai." There he was employed by Crawford & Co. As the captain of the trade schooner "Ebon," he visited Kosrae and Pohnpei on trading voyages. On Pohnpei he was arrested and tried by Sapnish authorities for selling guns to the people, but was soon released. Returning to the Marshalls, he served as the master of vessels for Crawford on Jaluit for a time. In 1892 he left Crawford & Co. to trade on his own in the Gilbert Islands. Cameron had married the daughter of a chief from Mejit. Finally, in 1893, Cameron left the Pacific altogether. Years later he was the subject of a book about his experiences in the Pacific.

Sources:  Farrell 1928; Stevenson 1914: 119-120


Adolph Capelle   Ebon, Jaluit, Likiep, Chuuk   (1859-c1911)

Adolph Capelle was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1838. He first came to the Marshalls on the "Pfeil," owned by Hoffschlaeger & Stapenhorst. He arrived on Ebon in 1859 at the age of 21. Capelle lived on the island for a time trading in coconut oil. In 1864, with the newly arrived Anton DeBrum as a partner, Capelle established his own trading company, A, Capelle & Co.

In 1873, after living on Ebon for more than a decade, Capelle moved to Jaluit, which was becoming the center of commerce. With their fleet of several small ships, Capelle & Co. expanded trading operations throughout the Marshalls and even into the eastern Carolines. Capelle was in Chuuk for several months in 1879 while setting buildings for a trade station there. Capelle & Co. sold their copra to one of the larger trade vessels belonging to one of the major firms in the Pacific. For a time, Godeffroy & Son was the firm they served. The company had a large store on Jaluit. Capelle was the consular agent for the US during the years he was based on Jaluit.

James Lyle Young, an agent for another firm in the Marshalls, was unsparing of Capelle in his diary. Young writes that Capelle, once a lay preacher for the church, has backslidden. He claims that Capelle has a tendency to see everything from one point of view--"dollars and cents."

Capelle and DeBrum purchased the island of Likiep for about twelve hundred dollars worth of trade in 1878. Thereafter Capelle and DeBrum used this as a copra plantation and a homestead. With their sons, Capelle and DeBrum began building small ships and started a variety of other businesses. Thereafter, Likiep became their base of operations.

Capelle died about 1911.

Sources:  Young 1878: 8 July 1876; LeHunte 1883a: judicial proceedings, 2; Moore 1872: 16; Hezel 1983: 210-226, 252-254, 267-268, 302-304; ABCFM: R. Logan's letter of 1879.


H. Carr   Majuro   (1880-1883)

H. Carr was a young Englishman who worked on Majuro for Henderson & MacFarlane in 1883. He was described as "Smart, well-spoken....belonging to Streatham in Surrey." He may have stayed on Majuro for a couple of years. Bn 1885, however. he was trading in Melanesia for Read, another former Marshalls trader.

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: 21; LeHunte 1883b: 23; Thurston 1885; Hernsheim 1983: 77


I.H. Clarke   Majuro   (1884)

I.H. Clarke was the manager of the Henderson & MacFarlane trade station on Majuro in 1884.

Sources:  Moore 1884


William Clarke   Pohnpei, Mili   (1869-1870)

William Clarke was discharged from "Malolo" on Pohnpei in October 1869. He signed on "Malolo" again at Mili in 1870. He spent at least a few months on Pohnpei and perhaps a little time on Mili.

Sources:  Bridges 1870


Frank Coffin   Pingelap, Majuro, Mili   (1868-1876)

Frank Coffin was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He was a seaman on "Blossom" in 1867 and was put ashore in Pingelap about 1868 as a trader for Ben Pease. He was apparently an old man at the time. He complained that he was tormented during his stay there and finally left the island a few months later with another trader on Capelle's schooner. He came to Majuro in the same year and continued trading for Ben Pease. At some point, he moved to Mili, where he lived for a short time in 1876. He was reportedly forced to leave Mili after exhibiting his false teeth and frightening people into thinking that he was a demon. He returned to Majuro where he later died of a sickness that he had contracted on Pingelap.

Sources:  Restieaux 1869: 5-7; Dana 1935: 53-4; Browning 1972: 36; Bridges 1870: 10 Jan 1869


Dick Cole   Pohnpei, Ebon   (1890)

Dick Cole was a trader for Crawford & Co. living on Pohnpei in 1890.

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 347


W. E. Cole   Majuro, Pohnpei, Kosrae   (1877-1880)

W. E. Cole was born in 1848. He was a trader on Majuro in December 1877. He next showed up on Pohnpei for a time in early 1880, but he apparently lived on Kosrae at this time. He died of fever aboard "Mathilde" on his way back to Kosrae--his home in later years--on April 10, 1880. He left a "white" (although perhaps Samoan) wife and two small children. Cole's wife remained on Kosrae and was an agent for Capelle & Co. during the early 1880s.

Sources:  Young 1881: 10 Apr 1889 and 12 Dec 1877


George Cunningham   Jaluit, Ebon,   (c1860-1864)

George Cunningham was an American from New Bedford, Massachusetts. He was said to have lived on Ebon "for some years." It is uncertain when he arrived on Jaluit, but may have come about 1860. He purportedly was the instigator of the plunder of the German trading schooner "Maria" in January 1863 when it was wrecked while leaving Ebon. He lived under the protection of the paramount chief, Kaibuki, but when this chief died, Cunningham and "his gang of pirates" fled to Jaluit to live--probably in late 1863.

On Jaluit he and his gang robbed the trading station once, but on the second attempt he was shot and killed. This happened just prior to arrival of the "Morning Star" in February 28, 1864.

Sources:  The Friend, 13.5 (May 1, 1864), 37-8; Nautical Magazine, 33 (1864), 434-435


Dale   Majuro   (1881)

Dale was a British trader working on Majuro for Henderson & MacFarlane in June 1881.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881


Dan   Ebon   (1857)

A man known only as Dan was reported to have come to Ebon sometime before 1857 and lived there for some time while supervising the pressing of cooking oil. He was said to have introduced domestic fowl to the island.

Sources:  The Friend, 5 Mar 1859, 19


Anton Jose DeBrum   Likiep, Ebon   (1864-1877)

Anton Jose DeBrum was a Portuguese citizen, born in 1837 at Pico in the Azores. He came to the Pacific as a harpooner aboard an American whaler. Upon arriving at Ebon in 1864, he jumped ship and remained ashore. He formed a business partnership with Adolph Capelle in extracting coconut oil and selling it to European firms. In time, he and Capelle expanded their business, purchased and built a fleet of small schooners and set up a profitable copra business throughout the Marshalls. Edward Milne, and later Charles Ingalls, joined the partnership.

DeBrum bought Likiep in August 1877 for $1,250 worth of merchandise. A few months later DeBrum transferred the deed to Capelle & Co. for $886. Thereafter, DeBrum and his family would move to Likiep where they ran a coconut plantation and business.

DeBrum married a woman from Ebon shortly after his arrival. His first son, Joachim, was born in 1869. Young described Anton De Brum as a "very quiet unassuming man without much education -- the best man of the three partners"

Sources:  Young 1878: 8 July 1876; McGrath 1973: 181-185; Browning 1972: 35


Devine   Jaluit   (1888)

Devine was an Irishman serving as bookkeeper for Crawford & Co in 1888. He was probably living on Jaluit at this time.

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 367


Charles Douglas   Arno   (1866-1886)

Charles Douglas was a British seaman who sailed with a man of war before leaving the ship in Australia and joining a bunch of bushrangers. He then signed on a whaler but deserted in Niutau, where he lived for a while as a trader. He came to Arno in about 1866 and lived there for over twenty years. Among other things, he helped rescue "Black Tom" Tilton and Westbrook from the anger of the local people in 1877. He served as an agent for Capelle & Co. during the early 1880s. He also served as a pilot on Arno. During the late 1880s he returned to Niutau to live. In 1892 he died after taking a fall on a visiting vessel.

Sources:  Young 1878: 2 July1876; Maxwell 1881; LeHunte 1883a: 21; Dana 1935: 247-8; Thurston 1885; Moss 1889: 74-5


Dunn   Majuro   (1884)

Dunn was a trading living on Majuro in 1884.

Sources:  Moore 1884


J. T. Elson   Maloelap   (1877)

Elson was living on Maloelap in 1877. He was a witness for DeBrum on the deed attesting to the purchase of Likiep.

Sources:  DeBrum Papers: deed to Likiep


Dominique Etscheit   Marshalls, Ulul, Pohnpei   (1884-1903)

Dominique Etscheit was born in Ehrenbreitstein, Rhineland. Dominique's father was a lawyer who worked for a title, landed family. He left Germany in 1871 for England to learn English. Sailing by way of Australia, he first arrived in the Pacific in 1884 to work as a trader. He lived in the Marshalls at first, supporting himself by trade. There he took a Marshallese woman as his wife, but she died in Manila not long afterwards. In 1886, according to a German deed, he bought Ulul Island in Chuuk and attempted to set up a plantation there. When this failed, he moved to Pohnpei to settle there permanently. By this time he had married a Belgian woman by the name of Florence Caymont, who became the manager of his estate when he died. In 1899 Etscheit purchased Jan Kubary's landholdings on Pohnpei, a few years after the death of the latter. Two of his children, Leo and Carlos, adopted their mother's Belgian citzenship and remained on Pohnpei until their death, while another son, Robert, and a daughter, Ella, returned to Europe.

Sources:  AHN 5863, ff 238-239; letter of Alan Hughes, 22 Nov 1993; interview with Carlos Etscheit, 16 Nov. 1981


Thomas Farrell   Majuro, Ebon   (1876-1877)

Thomas Farrell, an Auckland merchant, brought his brig "Vision" to the Marshalls, by way of Samoa, in 1876 to engage in the copra trade. He intended to open a string of trading stations in the islands. He opened his first station on Majuro, but it failed the next year. He set up a second trading station at Ebon, but it also failed. Farrell spent not longer than a year in the Marshalls in all.

Farrell moved to Bismarck Archipelago after leaving the Marshalls. He later managed the Godeffroy firm in New Ireland.

Sources:  Dana 1935: 23-4; Browning 1972: 36; Hernsheim 1983: 44-5, 59


Thomas Fleming "Jim Gordon"   Ujae, Lae, Majuro   (c1880-1918)

Thomas Fleming was a Scotchman known as "Jim Gordon." He was a soldier in the US and a hotel-keeper in Japan before coming to the Marshalls. He worked as a trader on Ujae and Lae before coming to Majuro. He returned to US, but eventually came back to Majuro. He died there in 1918.

Sources:  Chave 1947: 48-49


Folliot   Namorik   (1877)

Folliot was trading for Hernsheim Co. on Namorik in April 1877.

Sources:  Young 1878: 17 Apr 1877


J. A. Fraser   Arno, Jaluit   (1877)

J. A. Fraser landed in Marshalls to fit out a schooner in 1877, He spent a few months on Arno and then went to Jaluit for a time. Soon after he received his captains's license, he moved on to Fiji.

Sources:  Dana 1935: 280-1


Henry Freeman   Jaluit   (1878-1880)

Henry Freeman was a government agent for recruiting laborers from the Gilbert Islands. He was based on Jaluit in 1878-1880, but visited other islands in the area on labor vessels. He was implicated in coercion of Gilbertese aboard the ships.

Sources:  Bennett 1976: 1


Henry Gardner (aka John H. Oldham)   Jaluit, Ujelang, Nukuoro, Pohnpei   (1868-1890?)

48.5 (May 1890)

Sources:  Goodenough 1875; Bridges 1870; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, sub 8, encl 3, testimony of Gardner; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; PNA leg 13, exp 42; "The Friend"


Goddard   Ebon   (1877)

Goddard was trading for Capelle Co. on Ebon in early 1877.

Sources:  Young 1878: 15 Mar 1877


H. Grosser   Jaluit   (1880-1883)

H. Grosser was a German agent for Hernsheim Co. residing on Jaluit 1880-1883.

Sources:  Hernsheim 1983: 77; Thurston 1885


James Haggerty   Mili, Jaluit   (1877-1880)

James Haggerty was a trader on Mili in Dec 1877. He was living on Jaluit in April 1880.

Sources:  Young 1878: 15 Dec 1877; Young 1881: 21 Apr 1880.


Dick Hamilton   Aur, Pingelap   (1867-1868)

Dick Hamilton was an Australian who was put ashore on Aur as a trader in late 1867 by "Blossom." He worked for Ben Pease on Aur for a few months, but was taken off the island by a trade vessel after he and another white trader, Hughes, were poisoned by the people of Aur. He then went to Pingelap to work as an agent for Pease. His trade stock and all his belongings were stolen by the people, he claimed, and he was taken off Pingelap by one of Capelle's schooners after just a few months there.

Sources:  US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456 encl 5, testimony of Francis Coffin & encl 8, statement of Ben Pease; Restieaux 1869: 5-7; Shineberg 1971: 209


G. Hanker   Jaluit   (1880-1883)

G. Hanker, a German national, was an agent for Hernsheim & Co. He was residing on Jaluit 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Bully (William Henry) Hayes   Pohnpei, Mili, Kosrae   (1871-1875)

Bully (William Henry) Hayes was born in Cleveland. He traded in the Marshalls and vicinity during the early 1870s with his rendezvous at Mili. He stationed traders at many of the islands in eastern Micronesia, cheating them when opportunity arose. Hayes soon moved into blackbirding, sailing from island to island recruiting plantation workers from the local population. In early 1874 Hayes was stranded on Kosrae for several months after his vessel "Leanora" was grounded there. For the remainder of the year he used Kosrae as base of his operations. Hayes was arrested in early 1875 when he turned up on guam and was accused of smuggling prisoners off the island. After a few months in a Manila jail, Hayes returned to the US for a short time. On his return voyage, in March 1877, Hayes was killed by one of his crew in an argument aboard the "Lotus."

Sources:  Moore 1872; Clune 1970; Hezel 1983: 233-237


George F. Hazard   Mili, Ebon, Jaluit, Namorik, Pohnpei   (1867-1883)

George F. Hazard was an American trader who came from a prominent family of whaling captains in New England. He came to the area in the 1860s sometime. He was mate of Ben Pease's "Blossom" in 1867. Soon afterwards he was trading on Mili for Pease. When Pease robbed his station in 1869, Hazard moved to Ebon. During the early 1870s he worked as a blacksmith for Capelle and lived on Jaluit. In 1876 he was hired to work for Farrell as a trader on Jaluit. Not longer afterwards he was brought to Namorik to trade for Farrell on that island, but he returned to Jaluit in November 1877. In the early 1880s (1880-1883) he was living on Pohnpei, where he served as an agent for Capelle & Co.

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 335; Restieaux 1869; Young 1878: 10 July & 17 July 1876; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, encl 2, letter of G.F. Hazard; Thurston 1885


Herculane   Ebon   (1884)

Herculane was a Portuguese trader living on Ebon in August 1884. He was married to a Portuguese woman and working for Jaluit Company.

Sources:  Moore 1884


Eduard Hernsheim   Jaluit   (1877-1879)

Eduard Hernsheim, a German trading captain who had first come to the Pacific about 1870, founded his own trading company. He first came to the Marshalls in 1877. Working out of Jaluit for a time, he established his headquarters there and sailed to the other islands in the area to recruit traders for his new company. In early 1879 he left the Marshalls and moved to Melanesia.

Sources:  Hernsheim 1983: 36-37, 51


Franz Hernsheim   Jaluit   (1878-1885)

Franz Hernsheim, a German national and brother of the trader Eduard Hernsheim, came to Jaluit in February 1878. He lived there and served as German Consul. He was still on Jaluit in 1885 at the German acquisition of the Marshalls, but left the island in January 1886 to return to Europe.

Sources:  Hernsheim 1983: 38, 43, 98


John H. Heslop   Mili, Ebon   (1871-1877)

John H. Heslop was a British sea captain and trader living on Mili in 1871. The next year he was still on Mili trading for Bully Hayes. For the next few years he was serving as the master of the "Jimata" for Capelle & Co. before the wreck of the schooner in 1875. In late 1876 he was piloting another ship, "Agnes Donald" through the Marshalls. The following year he became the master of the schooner "Fortune," owned by some Marshallese chiefs. He spent several months, from July to November 1877, laying over at Ebon. Heslop was reportedly "frightfully drunk" most of the time. When the schooner he captained was repossessed by Farrell's creditors, he left Ebon.

Sources:  Young 1878: 15 Dec 1876; Pitman 1872; Moore 1872


Crayton Philo Holcomb   Yap, Jaluit   (1873-1885)

Crayton Philo Holcomb was born in Granby, Connecticut, on January 24, 1830. He signed on a whaleship in 850 at the age of 20 and for the next several years worked on whalers in the Pacific. For a short time he sailed a ship that he bought, but soon sold the vessel and became involved in the China trade. For a time he made Hong Kong his home port and sailed to Melanesia to find mother-of-pearl and other trade goods.

Sources:  Hezel 1975: 3-19


Charles Howard   Mili   (1871)

Charles Howard, from Sydney, worked for a year or two as a seaman board the "Leonora" of Bully Hayes. He was discharged from the ship in 1871 and put ashore on Mili to work as a trader.

Sources:  Meade 1872


John Hughes   Aur   (1867-1868)

John Hughes was the chief officer on ben Pease's vessel "Blossom" in 1867. He was stationed on Aur in that year to work as a trading agent for Pease. He was sixty years old at that time. Hughes was robbed of his possessions and his trade goods by the people, who also poisoned him. Hughes died on Aur in 1868.

Sources:  US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, encl 5, testimony of Francis Coffin & encl 8, statement of Ben Pease


John Hughes   Jaluit   (1878)

John Hughes was living on Jaluit in January 1878. He was working for Hernsheim Company as a clerk. [This John Hughes is not to be confused with the trader of the same name who lived on Aur duing the 1860s.]

Sources:  Young 1878: 5 Jan 1878


Jim Humphrey   Namorik   (1875-1876)

Jim Humphrey (variously spelled "Umphrey" or "Jumpfer") was a German working for Capelle & Co. He lived and traded on Namorik in 1875 and 1876.

Sources:  Young 1878: 17 July 1876; Colcord 1875: 43


"Ike"   Majuro   (1871)

A trader called Ike was living on Majuro and working for Capelle & Co. in December 1871.

Sources:  Pitman 1872


Charles H. Ingalls   Majuro, Pohnpei   (1876-1880?)

Charles Ingalls was a young American physician who was living in Samoa when he was brought by Bully Hayes to Micronesia. In 1875 Hayes brought him to cure the chief of Butaritari, according to one version of the story, but another source says that he came up intending to practice medicine on Jaluit. Ingalls worked on Jaluit for Farrell's company for a short time, but signed on for Capelle & Co. as a trader on Majuro in 1876. In 1880 he was sent by Capelle & Co. to Pohnpei to work as an agent for the company there. Sometime after this he went into partnership with Capelle and DeBrum.

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; Thurston 1885; Young 1878: 24 June & 10 July 1876; Hernsheim 1983: 33; Clune 1970: 145-146


Jemmy the Frenchman   Mili   (1867-1868)

Jemmy the Frenchman (who may have actually been a Greek) was a trader on Mili in 1867. When Jemmy was discharged that year by his previous employer, he was Ben pease for a job and was placed on another island in the Marshalls. He soon ran afoul of Pease, however, when he sold coconut oil to Capelle.

Sources:  Restieaux 1869


"Scandalous Jim"   Pohnpei, Kosrae, Ebon   (1853)

Scandalous Jim" deserted from a whaleship about 1853 and lived on Pohnpei. Later he went ot Kosrae and Ebon for a while, but returned to Pohnpei on "Pfeil" in 1864. He went to Ant Island as trader at that time. He was murdered by another trader named Bill in 1865.

Sources:  The Friend, Dec 1865, 91


Robert Keyser   Jaluit   (1867-1868)

Robert Keyser, a German, was living on Jaluit in 1867. He worked as a trading agent for Ben Pease, but soon was involved in a bitter altercation over a girl with another trader by the name of Lewis. When Keyser killed Lewis, he was taken off the island as a prisoner by one of Pease's ships and soon afterwards was sent to San Francisco.

Sources:  Restieaux 1869; Bridges 1870: 28 Apr 1868


John S. Kubary   Pohnpei, Palau, Yap, Nukuoro, Mortlocks, Chuuk, Jaluit   (1869-1896)

John S. Kubary was a native of Poland, but a naturalized British citizen. Since 1869 he travelled in the Pacific as a naturalist for Godeffroy Co. He lived in Samoa for six months at the end of 1869, then travelled to Marshalls on "Sofia" in April 1870. In August 1870, Kubary went to Yap, where he spent five months. In January 1871, he went to Palau, staying there for more than two years. In May 1873, he sailed on "Iserbrook" visiting Ulithi, Ngulu, Woleai, Nukuoro, and Mortlocks, arriving in Pohnpei in August 1873. He left Pohnpei a year later in August 1874 on "Alfred" which went aground and went down with many of his specimens. Kubary spent some weeks on Jaluit before sailing for New Zealand in December 1874. After spending some months in Europe during 1875, he sailed back to the Pacific. In late 1875, he stopped at Pohnpei, built a house and established a plantation.

In February 1877 he set out for the Mortlocks where he spent a few months--until the end of May. In May 1878, a year later he left for Chuuk and remained there until August 1879.

He returned to Pohnpei and married Anna Yelirt. When the company crashed, Godeffroy & Sons released Kubary, who turned to his plantation. His plantation was destroyed by a typhoon in 1882 and he worked in Tokyo for a few months. He returned to Pohnpei, visited Palau again in early 1883 and remained in the western Carolines until 1885. In September 1885 Kubary went aboard "Albatross" to New Britain and New Guinea. He remained at work in Melanesia until 1892 when he went to Germany for a few months.

He returned to New Guinea and worked there until 1895 when he settled again in Pohnpei. He found that his plantation had been devastated in the uprising against the Spanish. In October 1896, a few months after his return, Kubary committed suicide on the grave of his only son. A daughter was sent to Singapore to be educated in a convent school and later became a nun.

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: statement of Kubary; Spoehr 1963: 69-98; Paszkowski 1971


Lewis   Jaluit   (1868)

Lewis, formerly as master cooper from Honolulu, came to Jaluit as a trader for Ben Pease about 1868. He was killed in that year by the German trader Robert Keyser in a quarrel over a girl.

Sources:  Restieaux 1869: 3; Bridges 1870


Evan Lewis   Jaluit, Palau, Yap, Pohnpei, Lamotrek   (c1870-1895)

Evan Lewis was a Welshman, born in 1855. In the 1870s he served as an engineer on a steam launch that operated in Samoa under Captain Heinburger. He lived on Jaluit for a while. Came to Palau on the brig "Susannah" to trade for Capelle & Co, along with David Martens, his partner. After a quarrel with Martens, Lewis came to Yap where he settled for a time. His first arrival in Yap must have been during the late 1870s. He also spent time on Palau as an agent for Capelle & Co. He arrived in Palau on "Susannah"

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; Young 1881: 20 Oct 1880; Christian 1967: 238


P. L'Orange   Jaluit   (1880-1884)

P. L'Orange was a German trader working for Capelle & Co. He was Capelle's main agent on Jaluit from 1880 until February 1884, when he left on the bark "Musea" for Lisbon.

Sources:  Swanston 1885: Vol 6, 19 Feb 1884; Thurston 1885


Otto Loser   Maloelap   (1877)

Otto Loser was a German trader living on Maloelap in 1877. He was a witness to the signing of the land deed for the purchase of Likiep by Anton DeBrum.

Sources:  Mason 1946: Appendix A


Louis ?? (aka Louis the Frenchman)   Majuro   (1870?)

Louis the Frenchman" (his last name is unknown) was from Paris. He lived for a while in New Caledonia before his arrival in Micronesia. He was deposited on Majuro in the early 1870s by a French sloop that put in at that island. He was attacked by the people and nearly killed before Burlingham, a trader on the island, came to his rescue. The man was said to have been an excellent swordsman, well-educated, and a first-rate surgeon. Two years after his arrival he died of an internal illness.

Sources:  Dana 1935: 55-59


James Lowther   Mili   (1871-1880?)

James Lowther, an Englishman, was living on Mili in 1871 and 1872. He was trading for Towns & Co. of Sydney. He reprted that he was robbed of his cocnut oil and trade stock by Bully Hayes. It seems that Lowther remained in the Marshalls trading until the end of the 1870s. By 1880 he had moved to Nonouti in Kiribati, where he was a resident trader.

Sources:  Moore 1872: 12; Bridges 1870; Thurston 1885


W. N. Lyttleton   Ebon   (1877)

W. N. Lyttleton was British, the nephew of a respected lord, who had been in the Pacific for some years before his arrival in the Marshalls. He had lived in Fiji until his "clandestine departure from that group in 1873." He arrived on Ebon in November 1877 with plans to learn the Marshallese language and prepare himself for diplomatic service. A trader living on the island at the time of his arrival writes of him: "He is most eccentric in manner and perhaps of a weak mind." The same trader predicted that Lyttleton would "probably starve to death or else commit suicide (if he be not first killed by the natives)." Lyttleton left Ebon within a short time. He was killed in New Britain in June 1881.

Sources:  Young 1878: 13 Nov 1877 & June 1881


MacBride   Majuro   (1881)

MacBride. an Englishman, was living on Majuro in June 1881. He was a trader for Henderson & Macfarlane.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881


Isaac E. Madison   Maloelap, Likiep, Jaluit   (1864-1888)

Isaac E. Madison came to the Marshalls in 1864. He was living on Maloelap in 1877 when he witnessed to the purchase of Likiep by DeBrum. He also acted as interpreter to the Marshallese chiefs. He was living on Jaluit in January 1878, probably working for Capelle & Co. From 1886 on he lived on Likiep.

Sources:  Mason 1946


Lope Martin   Ujelang   (1566)

Lope Martin and twenty-seven other mutineers from the Spanish ship "San Jeronimo" put in at an island that answers to the description of Ujelang. They arrived in June 1566 and lived on the island for two months until a few of the men retook the ship and put to sea, stranding Martin and his fellow conspirators. The Spanish mutineers were thought to have been killed by the local people within the next year or two.

Sources:  Sharp 1961: 125-141


Johann Edward Meyer   Jaluit   (1880-1890)

Johann Edward Meyer was a German trader on Jaluit in 1880. He lived there until 1890 when he moved to the Gilberts. He worked for Hernsheim.

Sources:  Thurston 1885; Browning 1972: 37


Miller   Jaluit   (1880)

Miller was living on Jaluit in April 1880. He had no work and was living as a beachcomber.

Sources:  Young 1881: Apr 1880


John Millis   Ebon   (1877)

John Millis, formerly the mate of the schooner "Fortune," came to Ebon in February 1877 to trade for Farrell. He left Ebon on March 19 to trade in the Carolines.

Sources:  Young 1878: 5 Feb 1877


Edward J. Milne   Jaluit   (1866-877)

Edward J. Milne was a Scotsman, the son of a Presbyterian minister. He was born in 1831, was educated in Europe, and ws roaming the Pacific by his mid-twenties. He lived in New Caledonia in 1858 and narrowly escaped with his life after supplying arms for the local people. He was living at Erromanga Island in 1861, and then spent some time in Queensland and Samoa. He first came to the Marshalls in 1866 in a small schooner and was soon hired by Capelle to serve as supercargo on one of their vessels. Based on Jaluit, he was captain of the schooner "Jimata" for some time, but was then taken on as a third partner by Capelle and DeBrum. Thereafter he spent most of his time at the Capelle offices on Jaluit.

Milne was very well educated. He was also a good accountant and was able to navigate a ship. In addition, he spoke several Polynesian dialects. He drank heavily, however, and was prone to quarrel with his employees. He was married to a Gilbertese woman and had six children. He died on Jaluit on August 10, 1877.

Sources:  Young 1878: 8 July 1876 & 23 Sept 1877; Restieaux 1869; Moore 1872: 8


Paul Mitchell   Jaluit, Mili   (1888-1890)

Paul Mitchell was a Chilean who was in charge of the Jaluit Co. station on Mili in November 1888 when John Cameron arrived. Mitchell was driven out of business by a competitor in 1890 and worked out his debt as a day laborer on Jaluit afterwards.

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 328-30


James Montsenson (or Mortinson)   Arno   (1880-1884)

James Mortenson (variously written Mortison or Mortinson) was a British trader working for Henderson & Macfarlane on Arno from 1880 to at least 1884.

Sources:  Moore 1884; Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885


Henry Moors   Jaluit   (c1879-1880)

Harry Moors was an agent for Hernsheim based on Jaluit about 1880. He was working for Henry Freeman in recruiting and shipping Gilbertese laborers to the plantations in Hawaii.

Sources:  Bennett 1976: 15


Morgen   Jaluit   (1880-1883)

Morgen was a Danish trader working for Hernsheim on Jaluit during the years 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Muller   Arno   (1880-1883)

Muller was a German trading for Capelle & Co. on Arno during the years 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Murlocks   Ebon   (1881)

Murlocks was an Englishman trading on Ebon for Henderson & MacFarlane in June 1881.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881


E. Ohlsen   Majuro   (1880-1883)

E. Ohlsen, a Swede, was an agent for Henderson & Macfarlane working on Majuro 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


W. Perkins   Jaluit   (1880-1883)

W. Perkins was an American residing on Jaluit during the years 1880-1883. He was an independent trader.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


W. Rathray   Majuro   (1880-1883)

W. Rathray was an Englishman working as a trading agent on Majuro for Henderson & Macfarlane in the years 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


P. Reed (or Read)   Majuro   (1876-1884?)

P. Reed [sometimes spelled Read] was an Englishman living on Majuro. In 1876 he was trading for Hernsheim. During the years 1880-1883 he was the agent for Henderson & Macfarlane on the same island. He apparently left Majuro shortly after this, however, for he seems to have been in Melanesia by 1885.

Sources:  Young 1878: 24 June 1876; Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885; Hernsheim 1983: 97


W. Reicke   Majuro   (1880-1883)

W. Reinicke, a German, was living on Majuro and working as an agent for Hernsheim in the years 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Reid   Jaluit   (1890-1891)

Reid lived on Jaluit in 1890-1891 and was manager of Crawford & Co. station there. The firm failed in 1891.

Sources:  Farrell 1928: 389-90


Robert Reimers   Marshalls   (1885)

Robert Reimers was a German trader who came to the Marshalls about 1885 and worked there for a time. He left his wife and son there on a voyage to other parts and was never heard of again. Perhaps it was he who was killed in February 1903 in Aua in Bismarck Archipelago with two Chinese assistants and some laborers after opening graves to recover valuables buried with corpses.

Sources:  Sack & Clark 1980: 105


Alfred Restieaux   Mili, Pohnpei, Pingelap   (c1869-1872)

Alfred Restieaux was a Londoner of French descent who came to the Pacific at the age of twelve. He spent time in Australia, Peru and the western United States before sailing to honolulu. There he was signed on by a trading firm and brought to the Marshalls. Restieaux lived on Mili as a trading agent for nine months in the late 1860s. When his firm sold out to a Shanghai company, Ben Pease brought him to Pohnpei to trade for him. Restieaux worked for Pease on Pohnpei until the company folded. In August 1871, Bully Hayes took Restieaux aboard the "Leonora" and put him on Pingelap as a resident trader. Restieaux stayed until May 1872, when he was taken by Hayes to Samoa by way of Kosrae, Pingelap and Ujelang. Restieaux lived in Samoa until his death in November 1911.

Sources:  Dana 1935: 120-124, 189-196; Munro 1987: 96; Restieaux 1869


Peter Rietdyk   Pohnpei, Marshalls   (1879-1880)

Peter Rietdyk (Dutch Pete) was a Norwegian who lived in the Marshalls for a time in the late 1870s. In June 1880 he was living ashore on Pohnpei. He was the cook who killed Bully Hayes aboard "Lotus" in 1877 on a voyage to Micronesia. He must have decided to spend the rest of his life in Micronesia rather than face the law in the US. He supposedly drowned while on a trading voyage a few years later, perhaps in the early 1880s.

Sources:  Westwood 1905: 82-83; Clune 1970: 144-147


Charles Roberts   Mili, Majuro, Satawan, Pohnpei, Mokil   (1871-1884)

Charles Roberts was born in Exeter, England. He was the first mate of the "Neva" in 1870-1871 as the ship made trading stops in the Marshalls. In November 1871 he was put ashore on Mili as an agent for Bully Hayes. He then moved to Majuro, probably working as an agent there, and he met the "Neva" at Majuro in April 1872. Roberts moved to Pohnpei about 1873 and began working there as an agent for Capelle & Co. He spent the next several years working on Pohnpei, but with shorter periods of time on some of the outliers in the area. In January 1880, for instance, he was living on Mokil while trading, but by November of that year he had returned to Pohnpei. Roberts was married to John Rees' former wife, a half-caste Samoan by the name of Elaisa Mativa. He moved to Satawan to trade in May 1884, but he only remained there for six months.

Sources:  Young 1881: Jan & Nov 1880; Pitman 1872: Apr 1872 ; Browning 1972: 1, 35. LeHunte 1883a: 16, 42; Thurston 1885


A. Robertson   Jaluit   (1880-1881)

A. Robertson was an Englishman living on Jaluit in 1880 and 1881. While he was working for Hernsheim, Robertson also served as the Acting German Consul in the Marshalls.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881; Letter of A. Robertson, 11 June 1880; WPHC (Fiji) 146/80


Robinson   Jaluit   (1880)

Robinson was Hernsheim's commercial agent on Jaluit in 1880.

Sources:  Bennett 1976: 15


Robsart   Mili, Majuro   (1881-1883)

Robsart, an American black, was living on Majuro in June 1881 trading for Capelle & Co. In 1883 he was on Mili working for Henderson & Macfarlane.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885


Russ   Ebon   (1884)

Russ was a German working for Hernsheim. He was their resident trader on Ebon in August 1884.

Sources:  Moore 1884


J. H. Saunders   Jaluit   (1883)

J. H. Saunders (sometimes spelled Sanders) was a German living on Jaluit in 1883. He ran a tavern on the island.

Sources:  Humphrey 1887: 63-64; LeHunte 1883a: 23; Thurston 1885


Hermann Severin   Jaluit, Arno   (1880-1884)

Hermann Severin, a German, was living on Jaluit as a beachcomber in April 1880. In August 1884 he was working as a trade agent on Arno. He had a stock of twenty rifles for sale to the local people.

Sources:  Young 1881: 21 Apr 1880; Moore 1884


Frank Sherlock   Ebon, Jaluit, Namorik   (1876-1878)

Frank Sherlock, an Englishman, was born in 1848. He was a seaman on the British man-of-war "Barrosa" before he arrived in the Marshalls. He was living on Jaluit in 1876 and working on Hernsheim's schooner "Coeran" when Farrell hired him as a trading agent. He was brought to Ebon in July 1876 to serve as resident trader there for Farrell's firm. In January 1878 he was still living in the Marshalls and had just signed on for two years as an agent for Hernsheim at Namorik.

Sources:  Young 1878: 10 & 29 July 1876, 9 Jan 1878


John Simpson   Mili   (1877)

John Simpson was a trader on Mili in 1877 and perhaps before. He signed on "Lotus" as mate in December 1877.

Sources:  Young 1878: 9 Jan 1878


John Smith   Mili, Jaluit   (1869-1880)

John Smith, a Prussian, was living on Mili in May 1870. He came aboard the USS "Jamestown". He worked for Pease for ten months in late 1869 and early 1870. By May 1870 Smith had left the employ of Pease but was still living in the Marshalls. At some point he moved to Jaluit, where he was living in April 1880.

Sources:  Truxtun 1870; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456 encl 3, testimony of John Smith; Young 1881: Apr 1880


Philip Southwick   Majuro   (1867-1876)

Philip Southwick, an American, was sometimes called "The Cooper." He was a seaman on the "Blossom" in 1867. By June 1876, he was living "among the natives" at the west end of Majuro. He was not trading for any company.

Sources:  Young 1878: 24 June 1876; Restieaux 1869


Jack Steinberg   Mili   (1876)

Jack Steinberg was either German or Dutch. He was a trader working on Mili for Hernsheim in 1876 at the arrival of brig "Vision" in June.

Sources:  Young 1878: 14 June 1876


R. S. Swanston   Yap, Jaluit   (1882-1884)

R. S. Swanston was born on December 16, 1825. Swanston shipped about the Pacific when he was young. He spent at least two years (1856-1857) in Samoa. In June 1882 he came to Jaluit "to get as far as possible from civilization". He worked there as an agent of Capelle & Co. until Feb. 12, 1883. He left for Yap at this time on the "Maria Louisa" and lived there for over a year as a trader for Capelle & Co. He departed Yap in May 1884.

Sources:  Swanston 1885: Feb 1883-May 1884


W. Tennant   Yap, Majuro   (1878-1881)

W. Tennant was a Scotsman who practiced carpentry. He was brought from Singapore to Yap by O'Keefe in 1878. He remained on Yap only three months before leaving on the brig "Vision." His rapid departure was blamed by other traders on O'Keefe, who was said to have stolen his carpentry tools. He must have gone to the Marshalls from Yap, since he was working on Majuro as a trader for Hernsheim Co. in June 1881.

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: statement of John McGuiness; Hong Kong Telegraph, 25 Apr 1885; Maxwell 1881


Thomas "Black Town" Tilton   Jaluit, Arno   (1875-1883)

Thomas "Black Town" Tilton was born in 1812. He was a runaway slave from Southern Delaware who shipped on a whaler as a cook and jumped ship at Samoa in the late 1850s. He was deported from Samoa for robbery and came to Jaluit in "Mary Ann" in 1875. He worked as a cook for Capelle. The following year, in July 1876, he moved to Arno with his wife and ran a store. When he antagonized the people of Arno, he was wounded and forced to flee for his life in 1877. He bought the "Lotus"

Sources:  Swanston 1885: 2 June 1882; Dana 1935: 25-42; LeHunte 1883a: 23 & judicial proceedings; Young 1878: 1 July 1876; Humphrey 1887: 89-91


Charles Tomlinson   Arno, Majuro   (1878-1919)

Charles Tomlinson was born in 1855. As an American seaman, he served aboard the "Sea King" in 1878 and "Claus Spreckels" from 1880-1881. He first came to live in the Marshalls, then he moved to the Gilberts. He returned to the Marshalls toward the end of the century, living on Arno, and then on Majuro. He died in 1919.

Sources:  Chave 1947: 50-51.


Edward Vowell   Jaluit, Pohnpei, Ulul   (1878-1882)

Edward Vowell, an Englishman, served as a crew member on the trading ship "Lotus" in late 1877. He worked as an employee of Capelle & Co. on Jaluit from the beginning of 1878 through the end of 1880. Savaii, a native of Nukufitau, was with him during this period. He then came to Pohnpei in early 1881, but he does not seem to have stayed there long. He soon moved to Ulul with his Gilbertese wife. In June 1883 he was killed by two men from Pisarach living there. One story is that he was shot for his trade goods. Another version is that he was killed in a quarrel that broke out over his wife.

Vowell was alleged to be an assumed name. He was described as "a quiet sober man, and his erect carriage and bearing generally led everyone who met him to suppose he was an ex-military officer."

Sources:  Young 1878: 17 Dec 1877, 4 Jan 1878; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls to the murder of George Barrows; Moore 1884


James Walsh   Pohnpei, Majuro, Ebon   (1868-1870)

James Walsh sailed from Shanghai with Pease as a mate on "Water Lily" in May 1868. He was left at "Magarow Is" (Majuro) to look after a wreck, but was later taken to Ebon by a passing schooner. He then went to Pohnpei where he lived ashore until June 1870, and possibly even later.

Sources:  US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, statement in sub 2, encl 3


W. T. Wawn   Satawan, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Jaluit   (1871-1874)

W. T. Wawn was a Briton who spent four years in Micronesia as a trader before leaving the area. He went to Kosrae as an agent for Bully Hayes and Lechat in October 1871. He lived with two others, Mac and Elsen, collecting beche-de-mer. He left Kosrae in January 1872 for Pohnpei where he stayed until June of that year working and living with Joe Kehoe. He then moved to Satawan in the Mortlocks as a copra trader for Godeffroy & Son. He was put ashore by the "Iserbrook" in June 1872 and taken off by the "Susanne" in January 1873. Wawn spent another two months on Pohnpei between October and December 1973, and a few months on Jaluit between May and October 1874.

Wawn then went to Samoa where he took command of a copra schooner in 1875. Thereafter, he had command of other vessels, but never lived in Micronesia again. He died on July 5, 1901, in Sydney.

Sources:  Wawn 1874


B. Weimann   Jaluit   (1883)

B. Weimann was acting German consular agent on Jaluit in 1883. He was a partner of Hernsheim in trading enterprise.

Sources:  LeHunte 1883a: 23; Thurston 1885


George Westbrook   Arno, Pingelap, Mokil, Majuro   (1877-1880)

George Westbrook was an Englishman who sailed to Auckland when he was still young. After a few years there, came aboard the brig "Vision" to the Marshalls in 1877. He spent eight months on Arno in 1877 working for "Black Tom" Tilton. He was tortured by the island people for his involvement with Tilton whom they hated. Westbrook later saved Tilton's life. Westbrook remained on Arno as adopted son of the chief until June 1878 when he was taken off by "Belle Brandon." He went to Pingelap to work as temporary trader for Henderson & MacFarlane. He spent one year there and in June 1879 was taken by the whaler "Fleetwing" to Mokil, where he was put ashore to trade. In early 1880, "Belle Brandon" took him off Mokil, stopped at Ponape and Lukunor, and brought him to Majuro. He lived ashore for 2 months, then took "Falcon" to the Gilberts and the South Pacific.

Sources:  Dana 1935: 1-101; LeHunte 1883a: 16; PNA leg 13, exp 42; El Correo, Nov 1887


Weymann   Jaluit   (1883-1884)

Weymann was a German manager of Hernsheim Co. operation on Jaluit. He was living there in 1883. He fell ill and left for San Francisco in early 1884 and died en route.

Sources:  Hernsheim 1983: 77, 86


William   Mili   (1880-1883)

A British agent known only as William was working on Mili for Henderson & Macfarlane in the years 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Giles Williams   Mili   (1871-1883)

Giles Williams was a British subject who began trading in Marshalls in 1871. For many years he lived and worked on Mili. At first Williams traded for Capt. Daly whose company was based in the Gilberts. Then he signed on as a trader on Mili for Bully Hayes in 1875. The following year he began trading for Capelle & Co. He was still living on Mili and trading for Capelle & Co. in 1883.

He was deeply in debt to Capelle & Co. for most of his time. Young says of him: "He evidently has more muscle than brain."

Sources:  Young 1878: 14 June 1876; Maxwell 1881; LeHunte 1883a: 20; Thurston 1885


Wilson   Mili   (1881)

Wilson was a Swede who was trading on Mili for Hernsheim Co. in 1881.

Sources:  Maxwell 1881


M. Woolf   Majuro   (1880-1883)

M. Woolf was a German agent for Capelle & Co. on Majuro, 1880-1883.

Sources:  Thurston 1885


Jack Wright   Kosrae, Ebon   (1878-1880)

Jack Wright, an American trader, was living on Kosrae for some time, but was evicted by the paramount chief in 1850. Apparently he returned to Kosrae much later, for he was on the island in 1878 as a trader for Hernsheim. He was accused by the missionaries of being "a miserable wretch, a drunkard, a liar, a thief and a sodomite." He was removed from Kosrae by Hernsheim and brought to Ebon in 1880. He later shot himself while on Ebon.

Sources:  Hernsheim 1983: 66; Wilson 1850; ABCFM: Pease & Whitney to Clark, 26 Mar 1880





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[FOCP] Foreign Office Confidential Press
1908 Memo on the visit of HMS Comus and Lily to the Pellew Islands in 1881-1882, Australian National Library.

Fuller, William C.
1856 Log of the Whaleship Ocean, 1853-1856. Log 172. Nantucket Whaling Museum.

Furness, William Henry
1910 The Island of Stone Money: Yap of the Carolines. Philadelphia: J B Lippincott Co.

Goodenough, James G
1875 Proceedings of HMS Rosario in the South Sea Islands. Criminal Acts of Mr. W H Hayes, Master of the Brig Leonora. Queensland Government Gazette, XVII. 96 (28 August), 1671-8.

Groove, Stanhope
1881 Report on Proceedings of HMS Lily, 10 Feb 1881. ADM 1/6575. Public Record Office, London.

Haggerty, George
1844 Log of the Whaleship Omega, 1840-1844. Log 174. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum.

Hahl, Albert
1980 Governor in New Guinea. Edited and translated by Peter G Sack and Dymphna Clark. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Hambruch, Paul
1932 Ponape, vol 1: Allgemeines Teil: Geschichte, Geographie, Sprache, Eingeborenen. II.B.7 of Ergibnisse der S®dsee Expedition 1908-1910, edited by G Thilenius. Hamburg: Friederichsen, DeGruyter.

Harris, Franklin B
1851 Log of the Whaling Bark Venice, 1849-1851. Ms Bd V558. New London, Conn, New London Historical Society.

Harris, Samuel W
1847 Log of the Whaleship Phoebe, 1842-1847. Nantucket, Nantucket Whaling Museum.

Hazard, James S
1856 Log of the Whaling Ship Mary Frazier, 1853-1856. M3838 1853J. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

1844 Log of the Whaleship Elizabeth, 1841-1844. Log 1840E3. Salem, Essex Institute.

Hernsheim, Edward
1983 Edward Hernsheim: South Sea Merchant. Ed by Peter Sack & Dymphna Clark. Boroko, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies.

Hezel, Francis X
1975 A Yankee Trader in Yap: Crayton Philo Holcomb. Journal of Pacific History, 10:3-19.

1983 The First Taint of Civilization: A History of the Caroline and Marshall Islands in Pre-Colonial Days, 1521-1885. Pacific Islands Monograph Series 1. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

1995 Strangers in Their Own Land: A Century of Colonial Rule in the Caroline and Marshall Islands. Pacific Islands Monograph Series 13. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

[HMCS] Hawaiian Mission Children's Society
1947 Letters and Papers of the Hawaiian Mission Children's Society. Honolulu, Hawaiian Mission Children's Society. Microfilm copy of Micronesian material at Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam.

Hobbs, Reuben R
1859 Log of the Whaleship Isaac Howland, 1854-1859. Bk 117. Nantucket, Nantucket Whaling Museum.

Hockin, John P
1803 A Supplement to the Account of the Pelew Islands; Compiled from the Journals of the Panther and Endeavour, Two Vessels sent by the Honourable East India Company to those Islands in the Year 1790. London: G & W Nicol.

Holden, Horace
1836 A Narrative of the Shipwreck, Captivity and Sufferings of Horace Holden and Benjamin H. Nute; who were Cast away in the American Ship Mentor, on the Pelew Islands, in the Year 1832. Boston: Russell, Shattuck.

Hong Kong Telegraph

Howland, Edward
1841 Log of Whaleship Robert Edwards, 1838-1841. Houghton Library, Harvard University.

Humphrey, Omar J
1887 Wreck of the Rainier: A Sailor's Narrative. Portland, Maine: W H Stevens & Co.

Hunt, Cornelius
1867 The Shenandoah; or the Last Confederate Cruiser. New York: G W Carleton.

Hussey, Edward P
1856 Journal aboard the Whaleship Peruvian, 1852-1856. MR2. Mystic, Conn, G W Blunt White Library.

Huxford, James E
1856 Log of the Whaling Bark Ellen, 1852-1856. Log 242. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum. Microfilm copy on PMB No 253.

Jones, Benjamin L
1871 Lof of the Whaling Bark Camilla, 1867-1871. C183 1867L. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Jones, John D
1861 Life and Adventure in the South Pacific by a Roving Printer. New York: Harper.

Keate, George
1789 An Account of the Pelew Islands, situated in the Western Part of the Pacific Ocean, Composed from the Journals and Communications of Captain Henry Wilson, and Some of His Officer, who, in August 1783, Were there Shipwrecked in the Antelope....3rd ed. London: G Nicol.

King, Thomas
1853 Log of the Whaling Bark Canton Packet, 1849-1853. Log 108. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum. Microfilm copy on PMB No 242.

Kotzebue, Otto von
1821 A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits ... in the years 1815-1818. 3 vols. London: Longman and Brown.

Kramer, Augustin
1917 Palau. II.B.3 of Ergibnesse der S®dsee Expedition, edited by G Thilenius. Hamburg: Friederichsen.

1932 Truk. II.B.5 of Ergibnesse der S®dsee Expedition, edited by G Thilenius. Hamburg: Friederichsen.

Landers, Thomas C
1867 Log of the Whaleship Charles W. Morgan 1863-1867. Microfilm 16. New Bedford, New Bedford Public Library.

Lavers, Joseph W
1875 Log of the Whaling Bark Sunbeam, 1871-1875. Microfilms 64 & 65. New Bedford, New Bedford Public Library.

LeHunte, G R
1883a Report of G W Des Voeux of the Cruise of HMS Espiegle 10 October 1883. WPHS Secretariat 18875-1914, Series 3. Central Archives of Fiji, Suva.

1883b Six Letters from the Western Pacific. Colombo: Government Printer.

Logan, Mary
1888 Last Words and Work of Reverend Robert W. Logan. Boston: ABCFM.

Lubbock, Basil
1931 Bully Hayes: South Sea Pirate. Boston: Charles E. Lauriat Co.

L®tke, FrŒdŒric
1835 Voyage autour du monde, exŒcutŒ par ordre de Sa MajestŒ l'emperateur Nicolas Ier, sur la corvette le SŒniavine, dans les annŒes 1826, 1827, 1828 et 1829. Part 2: Partie Historique, 2 vols. Paris: Firmin Didot. (Reprinted 1971. Bibliotheca Australiaana nos 58, 59. New York: Da Capo/Amsterdam: N. Israel).

Lyman, Horace S
1902 Recollections of Horace Holden. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 3:164-217.

Macy, William H
1845 Journal aboard the Whaleship Potomac, Isaac B Hussey master, 1841-1845. MR 87. Mystic, Conn, G W Blunt White Library.

Mahlmann, John
1918 Reminiscences of an Ancient Mariner. Yokohama: Japan Gazette Printing & Publishing Co.

Mallard, Frederick
1855 A Two Years Cruise in the South Pacific, 1853-4-5. Dunedin, New Zealand, Hocken Library, University of Otago.

Mason, Leonard
1946 Economic Organization of the Marshall Islands. Vol 9 of US Commercial Company's economic survey of Micronesia. Unpublished report, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Maude, H E
1968 Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

McGrath, Thomas, SJ
1973 The Joachim DeBrum Papers. Journal of Pacific History. 8:181-185.

Meader, Samuel B
1857 Log of the Whaleship Martha, 1852-1857. Log 365. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum.

Moore, Lewis J
1872 Report of Proceedings of HMS Barrosa, 25 July 1872. China Letter No. 2216, enclosure no. 1. Public Record Office, London.

Moss, Frederick J
1889 Through Atolls and Islands in the Great South Sea. London: Sampson Low.

Munro, Doug
1987 The Lives and Times of Resident Traders in Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below. Pacific Studies, Vol 10, No 2 (March), 73-106.

O'Connell, James F
1972 A Residence of Eleven Years in New Holland and the Caroline Islands. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Packard, Roland T
1865 Log of the Whaling Bark Triton, 1860-1865. Log 193. Sharon, Mass, Kendall Whaling Museum.

Paddack, William C
1893 Life on the Ocean, or Thirty-five Years at Sea. Cambridge: Riverside Press.

Paszkowski, Lech
1971 John Stanislaw Kubary¿Naturalist and Ethnographer of the Pacific Islands. The Australian Zoologist, 16:43-70.

Pitman, E.A
1872 Log of the Schooner Neva, 1871-1872. Salem, Peabody Museum. Microfilm copy on PMB No 220.

PNA, Philippine National Archives
1897 Carolinas 1788-1897. Collection of documents, Spanish colonial period. 16 vols. University of Guam, Micronesian Area Research Center, Guam.

Pompey, Sherman Lee
1971 The Neglected Islands: A History of Micronesia. Manuscript. Copy in Micronesian Seminar Library, Pohnpei.

Pontius, Reuben
1868 Log of the Whaling Bark Elizabeth Swift, 1863-1868. Microfilms 22 & 23. New Bedford, New Bedford Public Library.

Restieaux, Alfred
1869 Papers of Alfred Restieaux. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, NZ.

Robbins, Charles H
1845 Journal kept on the Whaleship Balaena, Richmond Manchester master, 1841-1845. B171 1841J. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Roberts, Ephraim and Myra
1865 Papers of Ephraim P and Myra F Roberts of Ponape. 71-62, 66, 69. Portland, Oregon Historical Society.

Robertson, Russell
1877 The Caroline Islands. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 5:41-63.

Sacks Peter & Dymphna Clark, eds
1980 Albert Hahl: Governor in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University.

Scherzer, Karl
1862 Narrative of the Circumnavigation of the Glove by the Austrian Frigate Novara in the Years 1857, 1858, & 1859. 3 Vols. London: Saunders, Otley & Co.

Scovel, Horatio W
1852 Journal kep aboard the Whaleship George & Mary of New London, 1850-1852.

Semper, Karl
1873 Die Palau-Inseln im Stillen Ocean. Leipzig: F A Brockhaus.

Seymour, Edward H
1911 My Naval Career and Travels. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

Sharp, Andrew
1961 Adventurous Armada: The Story of Legazpi's Expedition. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd.

Shineberg, Dorothy, ed
1971 The Trading Voyages of Andrew Cheyne 1841-1844. Pacific History Series, No 3. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Simpson, C H
1973 Report on the Proceedings of HMS Blanche, 15 November 1872. Parliamentary Papes of the South Sea Islands, L:191-204.

Skogman, G
1856 Erdumsegelung der koniglischen Schwedischen Fregatte Eugenie in den Jahren 1851 bis 1853 ausgef®hrt unter dem Befehl des Commandeur-Capitains C A Virgin. Translated by Anton von Etzel, 2 vols, Berlin: Otto Janke.

Smith, Peter G
1857 Log of the Whaleship Young Hector, 1853-1857. Log 209. Sharon, Mass, Kendall Whaling Museum.

Smith, Thomas J
1851 Journal on board the Whaleship Milton, 1847-1851. M662 1847J. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Spoehr, Florence M
1963 White Falcon: The House of Godeffroy and Its Commercial and Scientific Role in the Pacific. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.

Stevens, Charles E
1867 Report of Proceedings at the Pelew Islands in the Matter of the Murder of Andrew Cheyne, Master of the Schooner Acis. China Letter No 57 of 1867. ADM 1/6006. London: Public Record Office.

Stevenson, Mrs Robert Louis
1914 The Cruise of the ÆJanet Nichol' Among the South Sea Islands. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Swain, Oliver C
1854 Log of the Whalehsip Mohawk, 1850-1854. Nantucket, Nantucket Whaling Musem.

Swanston, R S
1885 Journal of R S Swanston, 1857-1866 and 1874-1885. 6 vols. M121. Australian National University, Dept of Pacific History, Records Room, Canberra..

Terry, Charles
1854 Log of the Whaleship Herald, 1847-1854. H539 1847L. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Tetens, Alfred
1858 Among the Savages of the South Seas: Memoirs of Micronesia, 1862-1868. Translated and edited by Florence M. Spoehr. Stanford, CA: University Press.

Tinker, Daniel
1863 Log of the Whaling Bark John P. West, 1858-1863. Newport News, VA, Maritime Museum.

Tinker, Joseph
1861 Log of the Whaleship Moctezuma, 1857-1861. Log 825. New Bedford, New Bedford Public Library.

Thompson, Edwin P
1856 Log of the Whaleship Milton, Benjamin F. Jones master, 1851-1856. Log 264. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and Whaling Museum.

Thurston, J B
1885 Statistics respecting Certain Islands in the Western Pacific for the Period 1880-1883. Australian Document 109, British Colonial Office, London.

Tripp, William H
1858 Log of the Whaleship Corinthian, Thomas N. Russell master, 1854-1858. Log 61. Sharon, Mass, Kendall Whaling Museum.

Tripp, Frederick
1884 Log of the Whaleship Palmetto of NB, 1880-1884. Log 197. New Bedford, Old Dartmouth Historical Society and whaling Museum. Microfilm copy on PMB No 250. Microfilm copy on PMB No 250

Truxtun, N J
1870 Report of the Transactions of the USS Jamestown among the Caroline and Marshall Islands. US National Archives, Record Group 45. Washington, DC.

US Consuls
1906 Dispatches from US Consuls 1847-1906. General Records of Dept of State, Washington, DC. US National Archives, Record Group 59.

Ward, Gerard, ed
1967 American Activities in the Central Pacific 1790-1870. 8 vols. Ridgewood, NJ: The Gregg Press.

Warner, John M
1876 Journal of John M Warner, 1844-1876. C343 1844J. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Wawn, W T
1874 Amongst the Pacific Islands, 1870-1874. M1871/294. Wellington, NZ, Alexander Turnbull Library.

Westwood, John
1905 Island Stories: Being Extracts from the Papers of Mr John Westwood, Mariner, of London and Shanghai. Shanghai: North China Herald.

Wheldon, George
1856 Journal kept aboard the Bark Sea Shell of Warren, William Martin master, 1853-1856. S4392 1853J. Providence, RI, Providence Public Library.

Whipple, A B C
1954 Yankee Whalers in the South Seas. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.

Williams, Harold
1964 One Whaling Family. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Wilson, D Parker
1843 Log of the Gypsy, kept by Dr D Parker Wilson, ship's surgeon, 23 Oct 1839 - 19 Mar 1843. M 198. Canberra, Australian National University, Dept of Pacific History, Records Room.

Wilson, James
1799 A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean Performed in the Years 1796, 1797, 1798, in the Ship Duff. London: S Gosnell.

Wilson, Walter Scott
1966 A Short Chronology of Kusaien History. Unpublished manuscript. Agana, Guam, University of Guam, Micronesian Area Research Center.

Wilson, William H
1850 Journal kept aboard the Bark Cavalier of Stonington, Conn, Thomas Dexter master, 1848-1850. MR110. Mystic, Conn, Blunt White Library.

Winn, John D
1835 Log of the Barque Eliza, 1834-1835. 1834E3. Salem, Essex Institute. Microfilm copy on PMB No 206.

Wood, C F
1875 A Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. London: Henry S King & Co.

Wood, Richard D
1860 Log of the Whaling Bark, Superior, 1857-1860. Log 189. Sharon, Mass, Kendall Whaling Museum.

Young, James L
1877 Private Journal of James L Young, January 1875-December 1877. Sydney, Mitchell Library.

1881 Private Journal of James L Young, January 1880-July 1881. Sydney, Mitchell Library.

1929 Miscellaneous Papers of James Lyle Young . Sydney, Mitchell Library.

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