Tattooing was carried out in all members of the irooj class, males and females, once they reached maturity. Commoners, kajur, could also have tattoos, but not so elaborate and never on the face. Tattooing is a practice that was stopped by the missionaries in the 19th century. [back]


It was believed that a body is not human until the soul is recalled. [back]


Generally, the action contained in all the tales reflected the value and belief system of the society. Rewards and punishments were given according to the society's cultural rules. [back]