In Tonga the Wesleyan missionaries traded all sorts of items and there was little difference between a mission house and a trade store. [back]


In Tonga, for example, the (British) Wesleyans missionaries made use of the British warships, while the (French) Catholics appealed for help from the French naval vessels calling at Tongatapu. [back]


On record is the example of Tahiti, where Wesleyan missionaries ordered to cut down a large number of breadfruit trees [back]


Cf. The backing of Taufa¨ahau Tupou I in Tonga (Latukefu 1968) [back]


Often also called "Boston Mission". [back]


Warren 1860:243. The protestant mission history is reported by the following sources: Grundemann 1889; German Colonial Office files IX RKA III; Warren 1860; Hezel 1983. The ABCFM established mission stations in the following years on the atolls of the Marshall Islands: [back]


Cf. quotes in Gifford 1923. [back]


Such as the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, ABCFM or "Boston Mission".[back]


Warren 1860:85; Warren belonged to the Boston Mission. [back]


Brouwer 1972. [back]


Ibid. Italics in original. [back]


Warren 1860:205. [back]


The old testament (Levithicus XIX:28) says "You shall not make any cuttings in your flesh on account of the dead or tattoo any marks upon you." See also Levithicus XXI:5 and Moses 5 XIV:1. Apart from the Mosaic quotes tattooing is also commented upon in other parts of the Old Testament such as Jeremiah (XVI:6; XLI:5; XLVII:5; XLVIII:37), Jesaiah (IX:16) and Hezekiel (IX:4; 6). Christian scholars tabooed tattooing early on, but it seems to have prevailed in some parts of Europe until the medieval ages (see review in Sch–nfeld 1960:34-36). On the other hand tattooing was common among the early Chrsitians, and there is some indication that even the Apostle Paul had been marked (Letters to the Galeters VI:17).

Marking of outcasts was also practised (Geneis IV:15). [back]


The missionaries, however, did only very selectively use the quotes in Levithicus, as, for examples, some of them did shave and others did cut the sides of the hair on their heads, both forbidden in Levithicus (XIX:29). [back]


However, as has been shown before, being tattooed in a specific manner, as was well as purposefully not being tattooing as the Isrealites, was a group identificator setting onself apart from the neighbours.

In the case of the Bible, the book of Levithicus sets out a set of behaviour rules which shall govern the Isrealites and which set them apart from both Egypt, the country they came from, and Palestine, the country they were moving to. Both groups, Egyptians and Samaritans practised tattooing. [back]


Cannetti 1922:21; Joest 1887:50. [back]


Hager 1883:73. Tattooing had largely ceased in the second half of the 19th century, so that Finsch (1893:430) discussing tattooing needles was forced to state that "in 1879 it was no longer easy to obtain such implements." With the decrease in tattooing the need to procure tattooing tools had become obsolete [back]


Finsch1886 [back]


ABCFM Pi-A 7 Oct 1859; quoted after Hezel 1983:205 [back]


Riebow 1898. [back]


OPNAV 1943:24. [back]