Footnotes

[34]  

Steinbach 1894. [back]

[35]  

Joest 1887:57. [back]

[36]  

See picture in Steinbach 1891:47. See also Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:104. [back]

[37]  

Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:104.Hernsheim 1880:77[back]

[38]  

Kr°mer 1906:402. [back]

[39]  

The Marshallese distinguished between three basic mat types woven from Pandanus: 1) Jaki im babu (sleeping mats), which were coarsely woven with a strip with of about 10€12mm, and of which, depending on size, three subtypes are distinguished (large to small):Koj, Dubeko (~2 by 2m) and JaÒ; 2) id or nieded (clothing mats) and 3) goid (chiefly clothing mats). The clothing mats are finely woven with a strip width of 2-3 mm and were commonly about 0.75 by 0.75m large. The chiefly clothing mats (goid) reached sizes of 2m by 2m. Similar to knitting, the larger the product, the more complicated it is to keep the weave straight and regular, thus producing a well proportioned and shaped mat. In addition to these, small mats (bunnemij) were woven for the tattooing ceremony (0.5x0.5m). The common nieded as described in the text has two subtypes, kÖlowan, where the red decorative band (lžlž) is missing, and dÖdi (rÖri), where the black decorative band (tiltil) is lacking (Kr°mer 1904). [back]

[40]  

Kr°mer 1906:402. [back]

[41]  

Erdland 1914:282. [back]

[42]  

Finsch 1893:134; Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:104. [back]

[43]  

Kr°mer: kongur, Kangu. The Kangur is made of 20-25 Pandanus leaves, which have been sown together end to end with a considerable overlap. [back]

[44]  

Kr°mer: irik. [back]

[45]  

Schneider 1891:60; Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:159. [back]

[46]  

This customary way of wearing one¨s hair was also adopted by a number of Europeans living in the Marshall Islands, such as the two survivors of the mutiny of the whaleship Globe, Cyrus Lay and William Hussey (1968). [back]

[47]  

According to Abo et al. (1976:41; 377) the bujek is a hairknot worn by women, while according to Kr°mer & Nevermann (1938:90), quoting Gr–sser (bujik) and Erdland (bujek). Abo et al. (1976:33) give bobo as a variant form for the womens hair knot. The modern dictionary gives no term for a men¨s hair knot, sgguesting that the term either be forgotten, or more likley, that the term for men¨s hair knot, worn high as among European women, was appropriated for the (high) women¨s knot. [back]

[48]  

Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:94ff. Some of such material has been recovered from excavations and from surface collections (Rosendahl 1987; Dye 1987; Riley 1987; Spennemann unpublished). [back]

[49]  

Examples in the Knappe Collection in the Museum fØr ThØringer Volkskunde, Erfurt, Germany. A photographic documentation of the collection is held in the files of the Historic Preservation Office, Majuro. [back]

[50]  

50 Kr°mer (1905) : lirir[back]

[51]  

Kr°mer: r°lil, raliblilb[back]

[52]  

Schneider 1891:60; Kr°mer & Nevermann 1938:90-91. [back]