Footnotes

[222]  

Krímer 1904: 17-19; Finsch 1893:430; 1914:143. [back]

[223]  

Krímer: ngi; ngie; nie Finsch: ngnie; Gr÷sser: ngi. ˝i-tooth; fang (Abo et al. 1976:228). Added with a possessive classifier, ˝ii- means the tooth of a person or eating utensil. On the other hand, in modern Marshallese, the tooth of a comb is called t§§l (ibid. 268). [back]

[224]  

Krímer: djuro. juro-handle, for a knife, shovel or tool (Abo et al. 1976:121). [back]

[225]  

Erdland (1906:164): nin wadir; Krímer: nuadjir. See also the tattooing motif wajid (motif no. 19) which consists of a single dot. [back]

[226]  

Erdland (1906:164): nin burunar, nin b÷rumak; Krímer: ngi gio, ngi buromug.[back]

[227]  

Krímer: djubb; Finsch: dschib ; St-G: jib; Erdland (1906:119): jiob [back]

[228]  

Finsch 1893:430; Krímer & Nevermann 1938:91-92. [back]

[229]  

Finsch 1893:430. -Coconut shells are the most common and easily manufacturable containers in the Marshall islands. Such shells have been used as drinking cups, and storage containers for water, arrowroot and the like.

nut shell serving as a trade container for arrowroot starch from Rongelap (1910).(After KríNevermann 1938). [back]

[230]  

Krímer: ar in ío . [back]

[231]  

Krímer: ar in djedje . [back]

[232]  

Krímer: mamodj; mamudj ; Finsch: mommud; Gr÷sser: mamij; momij; Erdland (1906:153): mamuij; mamij. This is in contrast to soot, which was called adiniee (Erdland 1906:77). [back]

[233]  

Krímer 1904:18; Finsch 1893:430.-Elsewhere in the Pacific the commonly used material were the nuts of Callophyllum (sonsorol, Carolines: Kubary 1895:84-the plant occurs in the Marshall Islands in abundance [local name: lukwej ]). [back]

[234]  

Gr÷sser 1895:475. [back]

[235]  

Kaeppler 1972. [back]

[236]  

Abo et al. 1976:476. [back]

[237]  

Erdland 1906:155. [back]

[238]  

Erdland 1914:262. [back]

[239]  

Krímer: jeje ; Gr÷sser: dede ; Erdland: jeje . [back]

[240]  

Krímer: Tachypetes aquila (old name for Fregata minor) The Great Frigate bird (Fregata minor) occurs in the Marshall Islands as does the lesser Frigate bird (Fregata ariel, both Family Fregatidae; cf. Amerson 1969). Both are called ak in Marshallese.

There seems to be no preference for a specific bird, as a number of bird species have been mentioned by the various sources: Tachypetes aquila (Krímer 1906 = Fregata minor; F.ariel; Lesser Frigatebird; Greater Frigatebird; Pratt et al. 1987:84; Totanus melaneucus (= Tringa melaneucus, "Greater yellowlegs"; ibid. :141). [back]

[241]  

Krímer 1904:18; 1906:408; Hernsheim 1887. [back]

[242]  

The shaft only, with the barbs removed (Finsch 1893:430). Steinbach (1895:475) also mentions that the red tail feather of a tropic bird is used as the jeje -In the Marshall Islands there occurs the red-billed tropic bird (Phaeton aetherus), red-tailed tropic bird (P. rubricauda) or the white-tailed tropic bird (P. lepturus, all Family PHAETONIDAE; cf. Amerson 1969). The latter is the most likely candidate. [back]

[243]  

Krímer: ieb , made from coconut leaves with handles (Krímer: djelli, bannenur. iep -basket (Abo et al. 1976:70); jŐli -kind of basket ( ibid .:88); banonoor -small basket with two handles made from coconut fronds ( ibid .29). [back]

[244]  

Krímer: buninemid . There is no term for such a mat (cf. Abo et al. 1976:402). The entomology of Krímer's buninemid could be as follows: ˝;i-tattooing chisel; em§j-finished.

Another option "lost-the-virginity-and-is-finished" from: bu˝ ; to loose one's virginity; im -and; em§j -finished. [back]

[245]  

Krímer & Nevermann depict such a mat (1938:Plate 11). [back]

[246]  

Finsch (1893:430): kadschala . [back]

[247]  

Erdland (1906:116): jiburen korar . Abo et al. 1976:111 Jjibur "Embrace while sleeping"; en directional particle; k§rŐ ; - woman. "Mats that embrace you like a woman." [back]

[248]  

Steinbach 1895:475; Lesser Frigate bird (Fregata ariel) or great frigate bird (Fregata minor). [back]

[249]  

Finsch 1893:430. [back]

[250]  

Heine & Anderson 1971; Spennemann 1991. [back]

[251]  

Seen breeding and eggs collected by Peale and Wilkes in 1840 (Cassin 1858; Peale 1848; Pickering 1879). [back]

[252]  

In their section on bone tool manufacture, Krímer & Nevermann (1938:146) mention that human bones were used to make tools, but do not specify for which tool they were used. It appears that bones from dead people were utilised, rather than people who were specifically killed for that purpose. [back]

[253]  

In Kiribati human bones were used for tatooing chisels in the ethnographic past (Grimble 1972).

InTonga tattooing chisels of human bone have been collected by the early European visitors, such as Captain J.Cook (Kaeppler 1978:212 five combs hafted in a handle). They have turned up in archaeological contexts, possibly dating to the 5th century B.C. (Poulsen 1987:I207-208; II 185 Plate 68, 14-17; isolated tattooing chisels without the handle which has rotted away).

Similar tattooing needles, apparently also of human bone, stem form the Society Islands, both from archaeological (Ermory 1979:203) and ethnographical contexts (Kaeppler 1978:2134-135) and from ethnographic contexts in Samoa (Edge-Partington 1895:76,3+4; Joest 1887:68).

Archaeological specimens of tattooing chisels have been found in the Marquesas (Davidson 1984:90 fig 66f-g; Sinoto 1966:figure 4b) where they ethnographically commonly consisted of human bones (revenge bones) or bird bones, depending on the chisel width required (Brouwer 1972:105). In ethnographic contexts wing bones of tropic birds have been used (Joest 1887:68).

In New Zealand, where also a great tattooing tradition existed, tattooing chisels are known from a variety of archaeological (Davidson 1984:90-92) and ethnographical (Barrow 1978) contexts. Tattooing was very wide spread with a number of complex motifs (Davidson 1984:88-89). [back]

[254]  

Finsch 1893:430. [back]