Erdland 1914:21. [back]


Anonymous 1886. [back]


Chamisso 1986:275. [back]


Erdland 1914:21. [back]


Hasebe (1932) depicts and mentions such tattoos. He states that the tattoo is that of an, at the time, about 60-year old woman born on Kwajalein Atoll , named Richieiakoe , who on a trip to the Ratak Chain had been forcibly tattooed there. [back]


The lines are in fact longer at the neck to take into account the sloping shape of the shoulder. This has been omitted in this drawing to show the complete motif. [back]


Women's tattoos, having a larger amount of pigment used, stand out much better in photographs than men's tattoos. [back]


Compiled from: Choris 1822 ; Brandeis 1908 ; Hasebe 1932 ; deBrum photos; Mason Photos; Hernsheim 1880 ; Photo U.S. National archives, Still Photo Branch Record Group 80G-294431. [back]


Hasebe : auirikrik . Also given is the spelling euiririku . [back]


Hernsheim 1880:87. [back]


Hernsheim 1880 ; Krmer 1904 ; Hasebe 1932. [back]


For another thigh tattoo see below. [back]


Hernsheim 1880 ; Finsch 1893:429 ; Krmer 1904 ; Erdland 1914:21 ; Hasebe 1932. [back]


Krmer: o in berenb. Hasebe : bueriniba , which he, using Erdlands (1906) dictionary, interprets as back of the hand, using buer [shell of a turtle] in [posseiveive article] ba [hand or hand shake]) based on information by a Marshallese from Kwajalein. [back]


Krmer 1938:95 (based on drawings supplied by his wife, E.Krmer ); Erdland 1914:21. [back]


Erdland 1906:201-203 ; also Chambers 1972:182-183. [back]


Krmer : o in arin.[back]


Erdland 1914:21. [back]


The only ring ornaments the Marshallese had at their disposal were armrings ( Krmer & Nevermann 1938 ) and they were thus very interested in obtaining European gold and silver rings. In fact, the Marshallese became skilled craftsmen in manufacturing finger-rings from bent and beaten gold coins. [back]


Krmer: buiren in lebulin. Sign of Lbll, which Lbll invented as a past time (Erdland 1914:21). Erdland's dictionary (1906:58) refers to the tattoo as "thigh tattoo-of a woman". This may well be an euphemism for a mons veneris tattoo. [back]


Erdland 1914:21. [back]


Cf. Kubary 1887. [back]