[1]  For a detailed and exhaustive treatment of Greek, Roman and early Christian tattooing see Sch–nfeld 1960; Herz 1899:52-53; 176-177; Joest 1887:105. For Romans and Greek tattoos see also Pauly-Wissowa 1923: 2362-2370 (signum) and 1929: 2521-2522 (stigmatios, stigma, stizein, shmion [Greek]; signun, stigma, nota [Latin]). Constantine I. banned tattooing in the face, as this was inrepreted as god's image. Banning in Northern Europe occurred on the Council of Calcuth (Northumberland) in A.D. 787 (Cattani 1922:20; Joest 1887:107). [back]

[2]   It is of interest to note that the term "stigma" had been the term for "tattoo" and "body marking" in general in Greek and Roman times (see footnote 1) and has today attained an entirely negative connotation. [back]

[3]  Leviticus XIX, 28. Yet 16th and 17th century Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land had their arms tattooed to commemorate the occasion (Sch–nfeld 1960). [back]

[4]  General: Sch–nfeld 1960; The negative images seem to have been strong in the 19th century but seem to have become more liberal since World War II (cf. RØdiger 1874; Lippmann 1894; Herz 1899:167-174). [back]

[5]  Tatau--to paint, to draw. Originally introduced into English from the Tahitian via James Cook's description of his first stay in Tahiti (cf. Joest 1887 or Grimm & Grimm 1935:159 for entymology). In German "tätowieren", in French "tatouer", in Italian "tatuaggio", in Danish "tatoveringer", in Portuguese "tatuagens", in Swedish "tatuering", all originally from the same root. For a treatment of the entymology of the word tatau see Joest (1887) and Krämer (1903:II 64). Until the loanword "tatau" took on in Europe, a number of terms had been used: tattooed people were called "Bemalte" or "Punktierte" in German or "Pinctados" in Spanish, while tattooing was called prikschilderen (Dutch), punctures, punctuation (English) and the like (Sch–nfeld 1960; Joest 1887). In Japan, however, where tattooing always stayed en vogue, no replacement of the name occurred and the term irezumi prevails until today. [back]

[6]  Hasebe 1932. [back]

[7]  Chamisso 1986:193. Other members of the same expedition, mainly sailors, attempted to obtain tattooes -- also in vain. [back]

[8]  The literature on European tattooing is vast and shall not be reviewed in detail. Good overviews can be found in: Sch–nfeld 1960; Herz 1899; [back]

[9]  Tonga: McKern n.d. Hawaii: Kaeppler 1988; New Zealand: Gathercole 1988; Samoa: Kremer 1902; Marquesas: Brouwer 1972--The Micronesian tattoos have been documented to a varying degreee of detail by the members of the German South Seas Expedition of 1910. Damm 1938; Damm & Sarfert 1935; Eilers 1935; 1936; Finsch 1894; Hambruch 1914; Hambruch 1915; Hambruch & Eilers 1936; Krämer 1926; 1932; 1935; 1937; MØller 1917; Sarfert 1919; Sarfert & Damm 1929. [back]

[10]  Green 1979. Green argues that a number of motifs of the early Lapita pottery (1900-500 B.C.) had persisted and had been used in Hawaiian tattoos and on bark cloth. [back]

[11]  Brain 1979:150; see also below in this study. [back]

[12]   Mile Atoll was chosen as the reference point. It needs to be noted that the Republic of the Marshall Islands, in its internationally recognised boundaries, comprises 28 Atoll as and five islands. The geographical term "Marshall Islands", however, also includes Wake Atoll, currently under the jurisdiction of the United States of America. The Republic of the Marshall Islands has repeatedly made clear its position that Wake Atoll (Eneen-Kio in Marshallese terms) forms an integral part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. [back]

[13]  Bender 1969; Abo et al. 1976. At the time of writing the spelling had been endorsed by the Cabinet and was being introduced to the parliament (Nitijela). [back]