[1]   Inter-atoll voyages comprising some 300-400 people seem to have been a common occurrence (Hezel 1983; Krämer & Nevermann 1938:30;Gulick 1862).[back]

[2]    For Marshallese wave pattern navigation, see Browning 1972; Bryan 1964; Davenport 1960; 1964; deBrum 1962; Erdland 1914; Goodenough 1951; Hager 1886; Hambruch 1912; Hines 1952; Joyce 1908; Krämer 1905; 1906; Krämer & Nevermann 1938; Laubenfels 1950a; 1950b; Lewis 1972; Playdon 1967; Schück 1902;Winkler 1899a; 1899b.[back]

[3]   Senfft 1903.[back]

[4]   Within the Marshall Islands, the traditional differentiation was based on a clan system (quote some), rather than geographically. Thus saying one is from Arno Atoll makes little sense in view of the fact that one also has landrights one way or another on other atolls.[back]

[5]   Compiled from the following sources: Krämer & Nevermann 1938; Nakayama & Rapp 1974; [back]

[6]   The Aelon Kein comprise Eneen-Kio and the 28 atolls and 5 islands which make up the present Republic of the Marshall Islands. The list of sea marks has been compiled from the following sources: Krämer & Nevermann 1938; Nakayama & Rapp 1974.[back]

[7]   limlim "the white", a place where currents or reflected waves/swells collide, creating a foamy area on the sea surface (Krämer & Nevermann 1938:26; 260; 279).[back]

[8]   There is some confusion about Limudjalili, a reef off Arno. It has been equated by Krämer and Nevermann (1938:71; 74) to be Neptuns Bank. On the other hand, Chamisso (1986:130) mentions that his "Limmosalülü" is located north of Arno. In addition, elsewhere Krämer & Nevermann (1938:70) mention that the reef east of Arno is called "Wourenlal" (Vor en lal). Krämer & Nevermann (1938:73) also report that the Japanese maps show a seamount (635m deep) some 20 nm east if Arno, but assume that may not have been known to the people of Arno. Given the deep sea angling, however, it is quite possible that this fishing ground was well known.[back]

[9]   A map drawn by a Marshallese navigator for P.Hambruch, member of the Hamburg South Sea Expedition in 1910 (reproduced in Krämer & Nevermann 1938:216) shows a place marked No between Arno and Mile. No explanation is given.[back]

[10]   Senfft 1903. The Europeans called gave both chains a general name, "Marshall Islands", coined in 1788 by Captain Gilbert of the British transport Charlotte in honour of his fellow Captain William Marshall, in charge of the accompanying transport Scarborough, who sailed as convoy from Port Jackson to Canton in China (Gilbert 1789). Of course it is only fitting that a previous group of atolls, was named the Gilbert Islands in honour of Captain Thomas Gilbert.

This name, however, was not universally accepted. By extension to the name given to Mile atoll, the Marshall Islands were often called the Mulgrave Islands. As ship traffic more and more abandoned Mili in favour of Jaluit and Majuro, the name Marshall Islands became gradually accepted, However, there were also other attempts at naming: The Russian expedition under command of Captain L.V.Hagemeister on the transport Krotky coming from Sydney visited and described many atoll of both chains and gave them the collective name Prince Menchikov Islands (Hezel 1979:117). During the period of the German colonial administration some debate occurred as to the correct spelling of the Marshall Islands (Marshall Inseln or Marschall Inseln) but then term as such was maintained. The German ethnographers points out that the Marshallese had no general term for all islands and thus proposed to call them Ralik-Ratak Islands(cf. Krämer & Nevermann 1938). Although these attempts were making gradual progress, the termination of German colonial administration with the outbreak of World War I and the take-over by the Japanese prevented any further developments.

In the same vein, the pronounciation of Marshallese words had just been standardised in the German-Marshall dictionary (by Erdland [1906]). in a fashion which is phonetically more correct than the average English-based spelling and pronounciation of Marshallese place names until the recent dictionary by Abo et al. 1976. [back]

[11]   Nakayama & Rapp 1974:85. According to Erdland (1914:205) the sea north of the Ralik Chain (=north of Joiiaenkan ??) was called patpat (swamps) because it was believed that the sea would end in a swamp. [back]

[12]   According to Erdland (1914:4; 1906:172) the sea between the two chains is called Loluilaplap ("Loluiebleb").[back]

[13]   Peace Corps Volunteer Cultural Reference Sheet, Mile Island, Mile Atoll. Filled out by Erik E.Sandstrom. Undated (mid 1970s?) Ms. on file, Alele Museum. See also Warren 1860:175.[back]

[14]   Other evidence comes from Kosrae itself, where two taro (Xanthosoma spp.) cultivars are known to have been introduced from the Marshall Islands, one named Ebon and the other Mile (Krämer & Nevermann 1938:108). In addition, the introduction of syphilis and gonorrhea in the Marshall Islands is blamed on Marshallese returning from Kosrae (ibid.: 233).[back]

[15]   Rather well known are Mokil and Ngatik in the central Carolines, as traditions claim frequent wars with these atolls (Krämer & Nevermann 1938:217). Also known is Pingelap. [back]

[16]   Krämer & Nevermann 1938:217; Nakayama & Rapp 1974:6;7;84.

The central Carolineans are credited to have regularly went east to the Ralik Chain of the Marshalls, and sometimes as far as Johnston Atoll, and possibly even Hawaii. Intentional voyages: Nakayama & Rapp 1974:7;8; Pompey 1971:13;15;75; Shipwrecked/drifted from: Pingelap [to Jaluit Krämer & Nevermann 1938:35], Woleai [ibid.; Erdland 1914:315]; Yap (Twenty Yapese drifted to Kili in the mid 19th century. The Yapese were captured and killed by a Kili chief .- See Hezel 1979:127; entry for 1868, Bark Syringia).Lamotrek [Kotzebue 1821: II 89); See also Kadu of Woleai mentioned in Chamisso 1986).[back]

[17]   The i-Kiribati or ri-Pit as they are known in the Marshalls (Krämer & Nevermann 1938:13 footnote 2; 26; Chamisso 1986; Hernsheim 1887), were especially often found adrift and frequently stranded on the southern Marshalls, namely Mile and Arno, and these atolls have several genealogical links with the northern and central atolls of Kiribati European vessels putting shipwrecked ni-Kiribati ashore in the Marshall Islands also contributed to the number of ri-Pit in the southern Marshalls (Finsch 1893:383). Shipwrecked i-Kiribati were picked up by the brig Mercury south of Ebon in 1858 (Hezel 1979:121) and landed on that island, where two were later killed by Ebonese. In 1882 some other i-Kiribati were found drifting south of Ebon by the American vessel Northern Light; rather than being landed on Namorik of Ebon, the i-Kiribati ended up in Japan (Hezel 1979:139). During the 19th century i-Kiribati were also living on Namorik (1851; Hezel 1979:121; 1868; ibid. 127), Jaluit (1871; ibid. 129; 1879 ibid. 136). Still today, ni-Kiribati fishermen occasionally drift to the shores of the southern Marshall Islands.[back]

[18]   Marshallese blown off course have been reported from New Ireland, New Guinea (Marshallese from Jaluit bound for Ebon ended up 36 days later at Kavieng: Repatriation expenses of natives of the Marshall Islands. Commonwealth of Australia, Prime Ministers Department File 201/48. File A 457/1 Australian Archives, A.C.T. Regional Repository, Canberra), from Kosrae (Warren 1860:175), from Faraulep (Finsch 1893:166),

Other oral traditions indicate that on occasion voyages may have occurred as far afield as and . At about 1860 the people from Majuro Atoll set out with 50 canoes to conquer Kapingamarangi Atoll in the a Polynesian outlier in the southern central Caroline Islands. Upon arrival the Majuro people killed all original inhabitants and left a colonisation group behind. On the way back the canoe fleet ran into a severe storm and was dispersed. Some of the canoes ended up in Pohnpei, while others were driven to Nukuoro Atoll. There again, the Majuro people killed all original inhabitants and installed themselves as the owners of Nukuoro.Krämer and Nevermann (1938) who report this story, question its accuracy on linguistic grounds, as the Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi people speak a Polynesian outlier dialect and not Ralik-Ratak.

A common feature of these extremely far-flung voyages seems to have been dispersal in storms or disorientation during overcast skies, often leading to fatal results.[back]

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